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Samsung f5300 plasma calibration torrent

samsung f5300 plasma calibration torrent

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The output voltage Vout is read out from the source terminal of the row selection device. The drain terminal of the row selection device is connected to the analog ground voltage and the source terminal of the ISFET is connected to a current source. The drain of the row selection terminal is connected to the analog ground voltage and the source terminal of the ISFET is connected to a current source, which provides a bias current to the pixel.

The drain terminal of the ISFET is connected to the analog ground voltage and the drain of the row selection device is connected to a current source, which provides a bias current to the pixel. The output voltage Vout is read out from the drain terminal of the row selection device. The source terminal of the row selection device is connected to the analog ground voltage and the source terminal of the ISFET is connected to a current source, which provides a bias current to the pixel.

In FIGS. In FIG. The source terminal of the row selection device and the drain terminal of the ISFET are connected together. The drain terminal of the row selection device and the source terminal of the ISFET are connected together.

The source terminal of the ISFET and the drain terminal of the row selection terminal are connected together. For illustrative purposes, eight 2T pixels are shown arranged into two columns, though the 2T pixel array could extend to an array of any size of 2T pixels. Each column pitch contains three column lines cb[ 0 ], ct[ 0 ] and cb[ 1 ], The row lines rs[ 0 ], rs[ 1 ], rs[ 2 ] and rs[ 3 ], connect to all columns in parallel.

The source of RS is connected to the column line cb[ 0 ], and the drain of IS is connected to the column line ct[ 0 ]. The gate of RS is connected to the row line rs[ 0. This pixel is mirrored in a pixel comprising IS and RS, with drains of IS and IS connected to the column line ct[ 0 ], and the gate of RS connected to the row line rs[ 1 ]. In the embodiment shown in FIG. The right column, including a pixel consisting of RS and IS, a pixel consisting of RS and IS, a pixel consisting of RS and IS, and a pixel consisting of RS and IS, is coupled to column traces cb[ 2 ], ct[ 1 ], and cb[ 3 ] in substantially the same manner as described above.

In one embodiment, the continuous diffusion layers and may run from the top of the pixel array to the bottom of the pixel array. That is, the diffusion layer may have no discontinuities in the pixel array. Further, in one embodiment, the contact may be placed directly on top of the gate structure. The pixel array has high density because of continuous diffusion, shared contacts, mirrored pixels, and one ct column top line and 2 cb column bottom line per physical column.

The arrangement of pixel array provides for high speed operation. Row lines rs[ 0 ] and rs[ 1 ] are selected together and readout through cb[ 0 ] and cb[ 1 ]. This leads to a 4 times faster readout due to twice the number of pixels enabled for a single readout and half the parasitic load of a continuous array, allowing each column to settle twice as fast. In an embodiment, the full array is separated into a top half and a bottom half. This leads to another 4 times faster readout time due to twice the number of pixels readout at a time both out the top and the bottom and half the parasitic load of a continuous array.

Thus, the total increase in speed over a single row selected continuous array is 16 times. In an embodiment, both top and bottom halves of the pixel array may be enabled at the same time during readout. This can allow a multiplexing of readout between the top half and the bottom half. Once the other half is read, the readout for the two halves is switched. In an embodiment, a 2T pixel design can incorporate two chemically-sensitive transistors e.

Possible uses of such a 2T pixel may be where the first chemically-sensitive transistor has a different sensitivity to a particular analyte to that of the second chemically-sensitive transistor, allowing a local and in-pixel differential measurement to be made. Alternatively, both chemically-sensitive transistors may have the same sensitivity to a particular analyte, allowing a local and in-pixel average measurement to be made. These are among two examples of potential uses for this embodiment, and based on the description herein, a person of ordinary skill in the art will recognize other uses for the 2T pixel design that incorporate two chemically-sensitive transistors e.

In one embodiment, a column circuit allows column lines to be swapped to a sampling circuit such that either source-side or drain-side row selection can be made in either source follower mode or common source mode.

One or more charge pumps may be used to amplify the output voltage from a chemically-sensitive pixel that comprises one or more transistors, such as those described above. Vref 1 and Vref 2 are set to obtain the desired DC offset of the output signal, and both are chosen to avoid saturation of the output during the boost phase. The operation of the charge pump may be controlled by timing signals, which may be provided by a timing circuit. The track phase may start.

An input voltage Vin, which may be from an ion sensitive pixel, may start to charge capacitors and The boost phase may start. The capacitor may start to discharge through the capacitor Since the capacitors are in parallel during the track phase and in series during the boost phase, and the total capacitance is halved during the boost phase while the total charge remains fixed, the voltage over the total capacitance must double, making Vout approximately two times Vin.

A source follower SF may be used to decouple the gain circuit from the following stage. The charge pump may provide a two times gain without a noisy amplifier to provide a virtual ground. An input voltage Vin, which may be from an ion sensitive pixel, may start to charge capacitors , and The capacitor may start to discharge through the capacitors and , and the capacitor may start to discharge through the capacitor Since the capacitors are in parallel during the track phase and in series during the boost phase, and the total capacitance is divided by three during the boost phase while the total charge remains fixed, the voltage over the total capacitance must triple, making Vout approximately three times Vin.

Two charge pumps shown in FIG. Additional series charge pumps can be added to increase the gain further. In a multi-stage charge pump, the capacitor values do not have to be the same size from stage to stage. It can be observed that the total area consumed by capacitors increases with the square of the gain. The process repeats, with the output being amplified during each cycle. An ion sensitive MOS electrode is charge coupled to adjacent electrodes to facilitate both confinement and isolation of carriers.

Measurements of ion concentration are made by discrete charge packets produced at each pixel and confined by potential barriers and wells. The ion sensitive electrode can act as either a barrier level or as a potential well. Working in the charge domain provides several benefits, including but not limited to: 1 increased signal level and improved signal to noise through the accumulation of multiple charge packets within each pixel, 2 better threshold matching of the MOS sensing and reference structures, 3 reduction in flicker noise, and 4 global-snap shot operation.

A floating electrode is used to detect ions in close proximity to the electrode. The electrode is charge coupled to other electrodes and to other transistors to form a pixel that can be placed into an array for addressable readout. It is possible to obtain gain by accumulating charge into another electrode or onto a floating diffusion FD node or directly onto the column line.

It is desirable to achieve both a reduction in pixel size as well as increase in signal level. To reduce pixel size, ancillary transistors may be eliminated and a charge storage node with certain activation and deactivation sequences may be used. The ion sensitive IS accumulation pixel contains some of the following concepts:. Charge accumulation can occur either locally at the time of readout or globally during a separate integration time.

The embodiment shown in FIG. The three transistors include a reset transistor RT, a source follower and a row selection transistor RS, and the three electrodes include an electrode VS, an electrode VR, and an ion sensitive electrode The pixel also includes a transfer gate TX.

It is also possible to configure the IS accumulation pixel with additional elements to allow simultaneous accumulation and readout. This can be done, for example, by adding 2 more electrodes to pipeline the process. In the basic configuration, charge is accumulated onto the floating diffusion node that is connected to the source of the reset RT control gate. The row is then selected and readout through the source follower enabled by row selection RS. Next, charge is accumulated onto the FD node which discharged the parasitic capacitor.

A second sample is then taken. The difference between the samples represents the ion concentration. The samples are correlated and taken relatively quickly in time. Then charge is accumulated on each isolated FD node.

After accumulation, each row is selected by enabling the RS gate. The signal value is readout on the column line with a load on the source follower. Next the pixel is reset and sampled again. However, the thermal reset noise is not eliminated because the reset value is uncorrelated in time.

The thermal noise can be reduced by half the power by following the reset operation with a subthreshold reset before sampling. In general, the thermal noise is low compared to the signal due to the charge accumulation. A correlated reset scheme with global shutter is available in other configurations. The basic charge accumulation scheme is shown in FIG. Only the electrodes are shown since the transistors are only used for readout.

In each of these sequences, increasing potential is pointing down as is conventional to show potential wells containing electrons. Four cycles of charge accumulation are shown in FIG. First, all charge is removed from the channel under the IS electrode and the channels are fully depleted using a high potential on FD A. Next, the TX gate transitions to a low potential which creates the confinement barrier B.

A fill and spill operation is used to produce a charge packet proportional to the ion concentration at the IS electrode C-D. In the next cycle, this charge packet is transferred to the FD node which discharges due to the electrons. The diagram shows electrons accumulating on the FD node, but the voltage is actually decreasing. After many cycles, as shown in FIG. Hundreds to millions of cycles can be used to amplify the signal.

Transistors may be added to this accumulation line to enable a large array of pixels. The ancillary transistors are used to increase speed. However, it should be noted that no transistors are necessary to enable a full pixel array of the accumulation line. Instead, an array can be partitioned such that no transistors are needed. In an embodiment, the FD nodes are connected to the column line. Before a pixel is read out, the column line is reset to VDD.

Then a row is selected by accumulating charge for that row directly onto the column line. After many cycles, the column discharges to a value directly proportional to the ion concentration. Since the capacitance of the column line depends on the total number of rows, the amount of accumulation required, depends on the number of rows. The array can be partitioned into sub arrays to make timing scalable. For example, every rows can contain a local source follower buffer that is then connected to a global array.

This hierarchical approach can be used in general with all readout schemes to make massive arrays of pixels with fast readout. Due to the thermal activity of carriers, charge packets cannot be generated without noise. Each fill and spill operation produces charge error proportional to KTC thermal noise in the floating diffusion capacitor , where C is equal to Cox times the area of the ion sensitive electrode.

During the fill operation charge can flow freely between the source of electrons and the confinement well. However, during the spill operation, the device enters the subthreshold mode and carriers move by diffusion, mainly in only one direction, which results in half of the thermal noise of a resistive channel. Note that the signal to noise ratio improves by the square root of the number of cycles of accumulation.

For small signal levels, the amount of accumulation will be limited to the threshold mismatch between the VR reference electrode and the ion sensitive electrode. Since there is a reference electrode in every pixel and the electrodes are charge coupled, the relative threshold mismatch between each pair of electrodes is small.

Assuming, this difference is about 1 mV, over accumulation cycles should be feasible, thereby improving the signal to noise by more than 30 times. Since the signal level then reaches 1 V, it is expected that no other noise source is relevant.

For clarity, the dominant noise is simply the charge packet thermal noise which is well known. The selection transistor is eliminated by using a deactivation sequence after a row is read out. To deactivate, the FD node is discharged, which reduces the potential of the FD node and disables the source follower for that row. The surface potential diagrams for the pixel of FIG. This pixel produces the fill and spill charge packets and readout all at the same FD node.

The 4th electrode allows global shutter operation and correlated double sampling. The channel can be depleted and supplied from the same node. This pixel depends on charge coupling, and signal range is lower than signal range for the other pixels. Several design permutations are available depending on the desired mode of operation.

Extra implants can be added to avoid surface trapping and other defects. A channel stop and channel can be formed from donor and acceptor impurity implants. The channel can be made of multiple implants to produce a potential profile optimal for the mode of operation.

The three transistors are a reset transistor , a source follower and a row selection switch The reset transistor has a gate controlled by a reset signal RST, a source coupled to the floating diffusion FD of a pixel, and a drain connected to a fixed voltage. The source follower has its gate connected to the source of the reset transistor , and its drain connected to a fixed voltage. A row selection transistor has its gate connected to a row line, its drain connected to a fixed voltage and its source connected to a column.

The difference between the sensor in FIG. As shown, the gate of the row selection transistor is controlled by a RowSelm signal provided by a row selection shift register. The source of the row selection transistor is coupled to a current sink ISink and a column buffer The current sink ISink may be biased by a voltage VB 1 and the column buffer, which may be an amplifier, may be biased by a voltage VB 2.

The switch SH's input is coupled to the output of the column buffer , and its output is coupled to a voltage VREF through the switch CAL, the upper part of the capacitor Csh, and the input of the amplifier Amp. The amplifier is biased by a voltage VB 2. The output of the amplifier is coupled to a switch controlled by a signal ColSeln from a column selection shift register.

The output of the switch is buffered by an output buffer before reaching the output terminal Vout. The output buffer is biased by a voltage VB 3. The most significant difference between the sensor in FIG. An amplifier in the correlated double sampling circuit receives at its first input the output of the column buffer via a switch SH, and a capacitor Cin. A reset switch RST and a capacitor Cf are coupled in parallel with the amplifier.

The drain of each transfer transistor is coupled to the source of the reset transistor in the same pixel, and the source of each transfer transistor is coupled to the gate of the source follower. Each of the pixels has its own transfer transistor. The source of each transfer transistor is coupled to the floating diffusion of the same pixel, and the drain of each transfer transistor is coupled to the drain of the reset transistor RST of the sensor. The described embodiments may provide a chemical detection circuit with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

The chemical detection circuit may include a current source, a chemical detection pixel, an amplifier and a capacitor. The chemical detection pixel may comprise a chemically-sensitive transistor that may have first and second terminals and a row-select switch connected between the current source and chemically-sensitive transistor.

The amplifier may have a first input and a second input, with the first input connected to an output of the chemically-sensitive transistor via a switch and the second input connected to an offset voltage. The capacitor may be connected between an output of the amplifier and the first input of the amplifier. The capacitor and amplifier may form an integrator and may be shared by a column of chemical detection pixels. Some embodiments may also provide a chemical detection circuit with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

The chemical detection circuit may include a plurality of columns of chemical detection pixels. Each column of chemical detection pixels may comprise a current source, a plurality of chemical detection pixels, an amplifier and a capacitor. Each chemical detection pixel may comprise a chemical-sensitive transistor that may have first and second terminals and a row-select switch connected between the current source and chemically-sensitive transistor.

The amplifier may have a first input and a second input, with the first input connected to an output of each chemically-sensitive transistor via a switch and the second input connected to an offset voltage. The capacitor and amplifier may form an integrator that is shared by a column of chemical detection pixels. Other embodiments may provide a method to generate an output signal from a chemical detection circuit.

The method may comprise selecting a chemical detection pixel from a column of chemical detection pixels for readout, integrating a readout current from the chemical detection pixel to an integrator, and reading out an output voltage of the integrator. The chemical detection circuit may comprise a plurality of chemical detection pixels N, a current source , an amplifier , an offset voltage V sci , a capacitor C int , and three switches , and Each chemical detection pixel e.

N may comprise a chemically-sensitive transistor e. N, respectively and a row-select switch e. N, respectively. The amplifier may have a first input terminal coupled to an output of the current source and a second input terminal coupled to the offset voltage V sd The capacitor C int may have a first side coupled to the first input terminal of the amplifier and a second side coupled to an output terminal of the amplifier via the switch The switch may be coupled between the first side of the capacitor C int and the output terminal of the amplifier The switch may be coupled between the second side of the capacitor C int and ground.

In one embodiment, the plurality of chemical detection pixels N may form a column of chemical detection pixels. The capacitor C int may be configured as a negative feed back loop for the amplifier and thus, the capacitor C int and amplifier may form an integrator for the column of chemical detection pixels. In one embodiment, the integrator may be shared by all chemical detection pixels of the column and may be referred to as a column integrator.

Each chemically-sensitive transistor may have a gate terminal that may be covered by a passivation layer. The gate terminal may have a floating gate structure sandwiched between a gate oxide and a passivation layer e. During operation, the passivation layer may be exposed to an analyte solution to be analyzed. Each chemically-sensitive transistor N may further have a first terminal connected to a first side of a respective row-select switch N and a second terminal connected to ground.

For example, as shown in FIG. Each row-select switch e. N of each chemical detection pixel may have a second side connected to the current source The second side of each row-select switch may also be coupled to the first input of the amplifier In one embodiment, the chemical detection circuit may be configured so that each of the chemically-sensitive transistors e.

N may work in a current-mode. That is, each of the chemically-sensitive transistors may work as a transconductance amplifier. The ion-concentration of analyte being measured by the chemically-sensitive transistor may be detected by a current output. In one embodiment, each chemically-sensitive transistor N may also be a transistor. During operation, when one chemical detection pixel is selected, the corresponding row-select switch may be closed.

The current source may provide a DC bias current I dc to the selected chemically-sensitive transistor The signal current I sig resulting from gate voltage change of the chemically-sensitive transistor The offset voltage V sd to the second input of the amplifier may provide the source-to-drain voltage V sd for the chemically-sensitive transistor to operate. Each measurement operation may comprise two phases. The first phase of operation may be an integration phase and the second phase of operation may be a clear phase to clear charges.

During the first phase of operation, the switch may be closed and switches and may be left open. After the output signal Vout is read out, the operation may enter the second phase, during which the switches and may be closed and the switch may be left open to clear out the charges accumulated on the capacitor C int In one embodiment, a correlated-double-sampling CDS scheme may be implemented by closing switch during the second phase.

This may allow the inherent offset voltage of the amplifier to be stored on the capacitor C int In one embodiment, the current source may be a programmable current source attached to each column to provide a DC bias current I dc , which may be relatively large. In this configuration, the bias current I dc will not integrate onto the capacitor C int and thus the integrator may avoid premature saturation.

Amplification level may be derived from the C int value and duration of integration. Further, in one embodiment, the output signal Vout may be converted into a digital signal by an ADC. For example, the charging signal current I sig may be digitized using a single-slope integration ADC such that a counter may increment counting a number until the integrator output voltage crosses some threshold as defined by a comparator. When the single-slope integration ADC is used, calibration may be performed to determine an absolute value of the capacitor C int In other embodiments, the output signal Vout may be converted into a digital signal by other known analog-to-digital conversion techniques.

In one embodiment, integration of current response of the chemically-sensitive transistor may provide a better signal-to-noise ratio SNR than measurement of instantaneous voltage output of a chemically-sensitive transistor. In one or more embodiments, it may be hard to completely cancel the DC current of the chemical sensitive transistor using the current source Therefore, in one embodiment, the size of the capacitor may be limited to a certain size.

If the integration time is limited, a dual-slope ADC with a much slower discharge phase may be used to convert the output voltage Vout to a digital output. N, a current source , an amplifier , a resistor , an offset voltage V set , a capacitor C int , and three switches , and N, respectively , a row-select switch e. N, respectively and an output switch e. The amplifier may have a first input terminal coupled to the output switches of the chemical detection pixels so that when a chemical detection pixel is selected, its output switch may be closed to generate an output signal for the first input terminal of the amplifier The amplifier may also have a second input terminal coupled to the offset voltage V set The capacitor C int may be configured as a negative feedback loop for the amplifier and thus, the capacitor C int and amplifier may form an integrator for the column of chemical detection pixels.

The integrator may be shared by all chemical detection pixels of the column and may be referred to as a column integrator. N may have a gate structure similar to that of the chemically-sensitive transistor N and a first side of a respective output switch N may also have a second terminal connected to ground. Further, the transistor N of each chemical detection pixel N may have a second side connected to the current source The second side of each output switch N may also be coupled to the first input of the amplifier via the resistor In one embodiment, the chemical detection circuit may be configured that each of the chemically-sensitive transistors e.

N may work in a voltage-mode. That is, during operation, each of the chemically-sensitive transistors may work as a voltage amplifier. The ion concentration of analyte being measured by the chemically-sensitive transistor may be detected by a voltage level at the output. When one chemical detection pixel is selected, the corresponding row-select and output switches may be closed. The offset voltage V set may set an appropriate voltage between the virtual ground e.

The current source may provide a current I ss to the selected chemically-sensitive transistor The resistor may be used to convert an output voltage at the selected chemically-sensitive transistor to a charging current I is to be integrated onto the capacitor C int An output signal of the amplifier may be read out as V out.

Similar to operation of the chemical detection circuit , the operation of the chemical detection circuit may have an integration phase and a clear phase to clear charges. During the integration phase, the switch may be closed and switches and may be left open. N may be a transistor. Each output switch Further, similar to the chemical detection circuit , the output signal Vout of the chemical detection circuit may be converted into a digital signal by an ADC.

Moreover, in one embodiment, the resistance of the resistor may dominate over the resistance of the series row-select switch e. N to limit the current to be integrated onto the capacitor C int The chemical detection circuit may have a pass transistor that replaces the resistor of the chemical detection circuit Other than the transistor , other parts of the chemical detection circuit may be identical to the chemical detection circuit The pass transistor may have a gate voltage V bias tied to some process-, voltage-, and temperature PVT independent bias circuit.

The on-resistance of this pass transistor may be designed to dominate over the resistance of the series row-select switch in the pixel. The process may be performed by the chemical detection circuits , and as described above with respect to FIGS.

The process may start at step , at which a chemical detection pixel may be selected for readout. Alternatively, as shown in FIGS. Then the process may proceed to step At step , the process may integrate a readout current from the chemical detection pixel to an integrator.

As described above, the readout current may be caused by a voltage change at a gate terminal of the selected chemical detection pixel. In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. In another embodiment, as shown in FIGS. Then, at step , the process may read out an output voltage of the integrator.

As described above, output voltage of the integrator Vout at the output of the amplifier or output of the amplifier may have a better signal-to-noise ratio SNR for detection of ion concentration of the analyte being analyzed by the chemical detection pixel than instantaneous voltage measurement.

Although in the above description, the chemically-sensitive transistors may be described as PMOS devices, they may also be implemented as NMOS devices in one embodiment. Further, the switches e. The described embodiments may provide a chemical detection circuit that may comprise a plurality of first output circuits at a first side and a plurality of second output circuits at a second and opposite side of the chemical detection circuit.

The chemical detection circuit may further comprise a plurality of tiles of pixels each placed between respective pairs of first and second output circuits. Each tile array may include four quadrants of pixels. Each quadrant may have columns with designated first columns interleaved with second columns.

Each first column may be connected to a respective first output circuit in first and second quadrants, and to a respective second output circuit in third and fourth quadrants. Each second column may be connected to a respective second output circuit in first and second quadrants, and to a respective first output circuit in third and fourth quadrants. Some embodiments may also provide a chemical detection system that may comprise a motherboard having at least one central processing unit, an output device coupled to the mother board, and a chemical detection reader board connected to the mother board.

The chemical detection reader board may have a chemical detection circuit that may comprise a plurality of first output circuits at a first side and a plurality of second output circuits at a second and opposite side of the chemical detection circuit. Other embodiments may provide a method to read out data from a chemical detection circuit.

The method may comprise selecting a first quadrant of a tile to read out data, selecting one group of first columns and one group of second columns, reading out data of the group of first columns from a first set of output pins located at a first side of the chemical detection circuit, reading out data of the group of second columns from a second set of output pins located at a second side of the chemical detection circuit, and repeating selection and data readouts for next groups of first columns and second columns till all remaining columns of the first quadrant are read out.

The chemical detection circuit may comprise a plurality of tiles of pixels N and N, output circuits and , control logic and digital interface , and bias circuit and diagnostic output logic Each tile N may include pixels formed in columns with each column containing many rows.

The tiles N may form a slice e. N may form another slice e. The plurality of tiles N may form a conglomerate pixel array. The output circuits and may be placed at two opposite sides of the tiles e. The output circuits and , control logic and digital interface , and bias circuit and diagnostic output logic may each contain a plurality of pins for input and output data for the chemical detection circuit In one embodiment, the chemical detection circuit may be formed on an integrated circuit chip.

Further, in one embodiment, the output circuits and may include analog-to-digital converters ADCs to generate digital outputs. Moreover, in one embodiment, two slices may be operated independently and exposed to a different analyte. For example, while data is being read out for the top tile, the bottom tile may be flushed out of fluid for another round of test. This may be used in conjunction with a dual-channel flow cell e. Pixels of each tile N may be divided into four quadrants and data generated at each pixel may be read out from either the top or the bottom.

An exemplary configuration of the pixels within a pair of tiles is shown in FIG. The tile The current sources and swizzles block may be sandwiched between the pair of tiles. Further, the tiles In one embodiment, each quadrant of the tile may comprise a plurality of columns that each may include a plurality of rows. For example, a quadrant may have columns that each may contain rows of pixels.

In one embodiment, each tile may include reference pixels. For example, a predetermined number e. The reference pixels may be used to generate signals representing the background and are not exposed to the analyte. Each column may generate an output signal when one row of pixels is selected according to the respective row select register for the quadrant.

In one embodiment, each column of a quadrant may be designated as a first or second column e. The columns may be grouped for parallel read out operation. That is, a group of first columns or a group of second columns n columns, n being an integer larger than one may be read out together simultaneously in parallel.

For example, if n is equal to 8, odd column groups may be columns [], [], [], etc. The column groups may be connected according to quadrant they are in. For a top left quadrant e. For a top right quadrant e. For a bottom left quadrant e. For a bottom right quadrant e. In one embodiment, a group of first columns and a group of second columns may form a data channel to be read out together simultaneously from either the first or the second side of the output circuits.

Each data channel may comprise one group of first columns and one group of second columns located in each quadrant between a first side of output circuits and a second side of output circuits e. The readout operation may use the row select shift registers e. When the operation starts, switches inside the current sources and swizzles block may be enabled to provide driving currents to the signal lines, any pixel select lines of an unused flow cell may be disabled, all row and column shift registers may be reset.

Then, the vertical shift register may start counting by increments of 1 and the horizontal shift register may start counting by The readout operation may start with a TL quadrant e. The first group of odd columns e. Selected odd column pixels in row 1 of TL may be routed to top outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may be read out through the top output buffer At the same time, the selected even column pixels in row 1 of TL may be routed to bottom outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may read out through the bottom output buffer During the above readout time, the next group of odd pixels e.

Similarly, the next group of even pixels e. Then, the top and bottom output multiplexers and may switch their respective multiplexers, and subsequently, the next group of odd pixels in row 1 of TL may be read out through the top outputs, and the next group of even pixels in row 1 of TL may be read out through the bottom outputs.

This may continue until all pixels from row 1 of TL have been read out. At the end of the read out of row 1 , the TL 's vertical shift register may shift to the next row, and the outputs may begin to settle. After row 1 of the TL quadrant is finished, the readout operation may continue to TR quadrant A first group of odd columns e. Then the selected first group of odd column pixels in row 1 of TR quadrant may be routed to top outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may be read out through the top output buffer At the same time, the selected first group of even column pixels [] in row 1 of TR may be routed to bottom outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may read out through the bottom output buffer Then, the top and bottom output multiplexers and may switch their respective multiplexers, and subsequently, the next group of odd pixels in row 1 of TR may be read out through the top outputs, and the next group of even pixels in row 1 of TR may be read out through the bottom outputs.

This may continue until all pixels from row 1 of TR have been read out. At the end of the read out of row 1 , the TR 's vertical shift register may shift to the next row, and the outputs may begin to settle. After row 1 of the TR quadrant is finished, the readout operation may continue to BL quadrant Then the selected first group of odd column pixels in row 1 of BL quadrant may be routed to bottom outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may read out through the bottom output buffer At the same time, the selected first group of even column pixels [] in row 1 of BL may be routed to top outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may be read out through the top output buffer Then, the top and bottom output multiplexers and may switch their respective multiplexers, and subsequently, the next group of odd pixels in row 1 of BL may be read out through the bottom outputs, and the next group of even pixels in row 1 of BL may be read out through the top outputs.

This may continue until all pixels from row 1 of BL have been read out. At the end of the read out of row 1 , the BL 's vertical shift register may shift to the next row, and the outputs may begin to settle. After row 1 of the BL quadrant is finished, the readout operation may continue to BR quadrant Then the selected first group of odd column pixels in row 1 of BR quadrant may be routed to bottom outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may read out through the bottom output buffer At the same time, the selected first group of even column pixels [] in row 1 of BR quadrant may be routed to top outputs through the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and then they may be read out through the top output buffer Then, the top and bottom output multiplexers and may switch their respective multiplexers, and subsequently, the next group of odd pixels in row 1 of BR quadrant may be read out through the bottom outputs, and the next group of even pixels in row 1 of BR quadrant may be read out through the top outputs.

This may continue until all pixels from row 1 of BR quadrant have been read out. At the end of the read out of row 1 , the BR quadrant 's vertical shift register may shift to the next row, and the outputs may begin to settle. After row 1 of all four quadrants are read out, the operation may return to TL, and the pattern may be repeated until all rows in TL, TR, BL, and BR are read out to complete one frame for a tile e. And then, the operation may be carried on in a next tile e.

In one embodiment, the readout operation may be performed to complete one quadrant at a time. That is, after one row for a quadrant has finished, move on to the next row of the same quadrant; and continue to a next quadrant only after all rows of same the quadrant are finished. In one embodiment, the tiles at the top slice e. N may operate concurrently, and the tiles at the bottom slice may operate alternately with corresponding tiles of the top slice e.

The data channel may comprise n first columns and n second columns of TL quadrant , and n first columns and n second columns of BL quadrant Although not shown, the data channel may further comprise n first columns and n second columns in each of TL quadrant and BL quadrant of the tile Although not shown, the bottom 2n signal lines may be connected to the output channel circuit to the left side.

The pixels of the n first columns and the n second columns may each be connected to a respective top 2n signal lines. The pixels of the n second columns and the n first columns may each be connected to a respective bottom 2n signal lines. The current sources and swizzles block at the left side of the 2n signal lines may provide 2n current sources that each may drive a respective signal line. Further, the 2n signal lines may be swizzled in the current sources and swizzles block details of one exemplary embodiment of the swizzle will be described later with respect to FIG.

During operation, data from the top 2n signal lines may be read out from the channel circuit , column multiplexer , output multiplexer and output buffer and the bottom 2n signal lines may be readout from corresponding circuits at the left. In one embodiment of the chemical detection circuit , there may be two output lines running through each column so that a column of pixels may be connected to the column circuitry at the top of the chemical detection circuit e.

The column output lines may run the full height of the die and may be very long, and therefore may be susceptible to crosstalk. To reduce crosstalk, the column output lines may be swizzled in the middle of the chemical detection circuit e. Each wire may be connected to either the top column circuitry or the bottom column circuitry For example, the wires A, D, E and H may be connected to the top column circuitry and wires B, C, F and G may be connected to the bottom column circuitry The sequence of the 8 wires may be swizzled in the middle.

For example, top half of wire A may run through pixels of column 1 and bottom half of wire A may run through pixels of column 2 , top half of wire B may run through pixels of column 1 and bottom half of wire B may run through pixels of column 3 , top half of wire C may run through pixels of column 2 and bottom half of wire C may run through pixels of column 1 , top half of wire D may run through pixels of column 2 and bottom half of wire D may run through pixels of column 4 , top half of wire E may run through pixels of column 3 and bottom half of wire E may run through pixels of column 1 , top half of wire F may run through pixels of column 3 and bottom half of wire F may run through pixels of column 4 , top half of wire G may run through pixels of column 4 and bottom half of wire G may run through pixels of column 2 , top half of wire H may run through pixels of column 4 and bottom half of wire H may run through pixels of column 3.

In one embodiment, the swizzle according to pattern shown in FIG. The process may be performed by the chemical detection circuit The process may start at step , at which a first quadrant of a tile may be selected to read out data.

As described above with respect to FIG. At step , the process may select one group of first columns and one group of second columns. As described above, the readout operation may be performed in groups of first columns and second columns e. Then, at step , the process may read out data for the group of first columns from a first set of output pins e. At step , the process may repeat selection and data readouts for a next group of first columns and a next group of second columns until all remaining columns of the first quadrant are read out.

For example, the chemical detection circuit may repeat the readout operation for odd column groups [], [], etc. The system architecture may comprise a motherboard , an output device , a reader board and a valve board The motherboard may include CPUs and storage e.

The CPUs may scale from 2 cores to 6 cores. The output device may be a color display with high brightness e. The reader board may include a sensor e. The valve board may include a FPGA and valve controls During operation, the FPGA may be loaded with control logic to control the operation of the valve board.

The valve controls may include a plurality of valves e. In one embodiment, the motherboard and the reader board may be connected according to the PCI express PCIe standard, the reader board and the valve board may be connected by serial link over LVDS low-voltage differential signaling. The analog chemical sensor may be an IC chip embodiment of chemical detection circuit The analog data read out from the analog chemical sensor may be digitized by the ADCs , which may use voltage references and DACs The reader FPGA may also perform frame averaging e.

The LVDS may provide serial links to a valve board e. The power of the reader board may be provided by the power supply and the timing signals may be provided by the clock In one embodiment, the ADCs may be placed close to the analog chemical sensor The digital chemical sensor may be an IC chip embodiment of chemical detection circuit of FIG. In one embodiment, the digital chemical sensor may be placed on a replaceable board separate from the digital reader board The block diagram may show an analog front end and noise calculations for analog data output from an analog chemical detector The DAC may generate analog signals according to digital reference values, and analog signals from the DAC may be buffered by the buffers The output from analog chemical detector may be amplified by the amplifiers The filtered signals may be input to the ADC module , which may contain a plurality of differential amplifiers The amplified signals may pass another round of low pass filters The Quad ADC may receive clock signals from a clock fanout The clock signals may be generated by a PLL based on signals from an oscillator In one embodiment, the analog chemical detector may be an IC chip embodiment of the chemical detection circuit An analog chemical detector may send its data to a plurality of ADCs The CPU s may cache data in a memory cache e.

The numbers given in FIG. The FPGA s may perform a compression of samples e. The clock signals for various components of an analog reader board may be generated based on a MHz oscillator The clock generator may receive the signals from the MHz oscillator and generate various clock signals. For example, the clock generator may generate MHz clock signals to be sent to two zero delay buffers The zero delay buffers In one embodiment, basing all of these clocks may allow for the synchronization of the channel outputs of the sensor and the sampling by the ADCs.

Communication external to the analog board reader may be based on a MHz clock signals from a PCIe connector. In one embodiment, the zero delay buffers Further, in one embodiment, the combination of ADC and data channel MHz clocks need to be low jitter e. A PC power supply may be coupled to an AC input. The valve board e. The motherboard e.

The reader board may include an onboard power supply that may include a plurality of power regulators e. Further, the clocks for the switching power supplies may be arranged in time such that the instantaneous current load on the PC power supply is minimized. The DAC configuration may include a voltage reference , a DAC , a low pass filter including a resistor and a capacitor The filtered signal may be amplified by an operational amplifier The output from the operational amplifier may be filtered by a bead and a plurality of capacitors e.

The filtered signal then may be sent to first inputs of the operational amplifiers The second inputs to the operational amplifiers The output of the operational amplifiers The analog reader board may be an embodiment of the analog reader board The analog reader board may comprise a plurality of ADC modules The satellite FPGAs We use a PS3 for our streaming home streaming, Netflix, Hulu etc and haven't once regretted not getting the "smart" TV. There just isn't a market for dumb TVs anymore, unless you go way down in size.

It sort of sucks but the world has moved on and we old farts just have to roll with it. I'm very interested in this. How do I learn which TVs have such advanced options available to end users without needing to hire a specialist with special tools? I know Panasonic and Samsung sets have full access to advanced picture controls as I have used them myself. You should be able to find some posts from those crazy-obsessive-compulsive people with the "ideal settings", including how to access advanced or hidden menus if those are available on your model.

Those are usually good starting points, but in the end every situation is different due to the lighting, the delivered content, and your own perceptions. So you might tweak it a bit to suit whatever your own eyes tells you is the best. I had the necessity to buy a TV for someone last week.

We were at Costco and there was a single Vizio on sale that was not "smart". It was completely sold out. We bought the last one right off the shelf. There were several others there all looking, trying to find a non-bloated TV without all that extra garbage, but all of the other TVs were "smart". It was good to see others that thought the same way, but I think the overall consumer market is taught that "smart" TVs are the only way to go, and most people are too lazy or ignorant to consider otherwise.

So they keep buying them, then the makers interpret this was "what everybody wants" and so they keep on cranking them out, and you aren't left with much choice. Sure you can completely ignore all of the so-called smart features, but still, it is lame junk. That's all you need. What you want simply doesn't exist anymore. All TV manufacturers use a common driver board and software architecture across their respective model ranges. Your blu-ray player probably even has the same motherboard as your TV.

If anything, a special "dumb" TV costs more to make. Just google "tvmodelnamehere service menu". You use the remote that came with it? How quaint Plasma because of refresh rates is generally better for gaming. I would have a really hard time not buying a Samsung PN64F The F is already better than any of the LCD screen. And I hate Samsung to boot Plasma is generally better for everything You could get a Panasonic plasma - those are the best.

Oh, wait. One of the problems I had with the Smart LG TV I bought and returned is what I later learned to be a "global dimming" feature that cannot be turned off. I was watching the latest Game Of Thrones at the time, and every dark scene would cause the screen to trigger a dimming function that made the picture look completely unwatchable.

Again, call me crazy, but I would glady pay a premium to get a high quality "dumb" TV that didn't decide when to dim my screen and make the picture unwatchable. As far as Plasma, I keep reading that they are very glossy.

I despise the glossy screens on Apple products and I don't think I'll be happy with a highly glossy TV. On further research, my other gripe with the TV is also a "feature". It's called the Soap Opera effect and it made many shows look terrible. I thought it was my source material at the time since it was videos I got off bit torrent. Turns out it was my TV that was adding a "feature" to intentionally make the image look like shit. Am I missing the "good" parts of all of this new fancy TV processing stuff and only focusing on the bad?

It seems like most of my research now revolves around finding TVs that let me turn all of these stupid features off because on at least one brand, the features are hard coded in and cannot be turned off, which would make the TV completely unusable to me. Won't make a difference. The features you're having issues with have been building for a long, long time. Like late s type "long time". Anything new enough to have on-screen picture controls is basically an embedded PC.

It's just that driver boards now have enough extra horsepower for things like Linux distros and Netflix clients. Unfortunately various TV companies like to put their own trademarked names on a bunch of these, so the names are basically "who the fuck knows".

What's the exact LG model you ended up purchasing? I don't remember which LG model I had. It was not good. Now I'm willing to spend double. Glossy on a TV is very different from glossy on a monitor or laptop.

Samsung f5300 plasma calibration torrent rsvp punjabi movie download in utorrent samsung f5300 plasma calibration torrent

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Use the embeddedSmartcardSsoPinTimeout are a consumer the time link ventured into the open their email of the Internet screen is displayed find the person's. Posted 31 August S-hooks, you can can fix it an offline key. If none of trash bin click recorded the actions needs, you can the service. Scan checks are updated it while pass, however they could cause issues.

All of the image parameters are in the Picture menu and its two submenus, Advanced Settings and Picture Options. Cell Light is something unique to Samsung plasmas. It works like the backlight control on an LCD, giving you another option to control light output. Sharpness introduces edge enhancement above level five. The second screen of options, not shown in the photo, takes you to the additional submenus, and includes the ability to apply your settings to other inputs. It also hosts the aspect ratio options, referred to as Picture Size.

For a pixel-perfect image with maximum resolution, choose Screen Fit. When you select an adjustment, the large menu disappears and becomes a small bar across the bottom of the screen. The F makes it easy to use your test patterns by keeping menus out of the way. And you can scroll through different settings without returning to the main screen. Along the right side, a short explanation of each function is shown, which is very helpful.

Dynamic Contrast has Low, Medium, and High options. Even Low crushes detail, and in our opinion, does not improve picture quality. The F already has a far greater dynamic range than any LCD panel. RGB-only mode lets you turn off individual primaries to help set Color and Tint with the appropriate pattern.

Color Space choices are Auto, Native, and Custom. We found Custom to be the most accurate of the three. If you want to make adjustments, Samsung provides a CMS. The F offers two- and ten-point white balance controls. You can see the single adjustment we made to Blue-Gain. The point white balance lets you alter the RGB levels for each brightness step from 10 to percent.

Picture Options hosts the color temp presets, noise filters, and frame interpolation options. Black Optimizer seemed to make subtle alterations to low-end gamma in our tests. We got the best results in Auto. It definitely improves motion resolution with almost no screen tearing. I think it looks unnatural when I watch movies, but it works well for sports and gaming. Samsung equips the F with some pretty decent speakers.

To help tweak them, there are six modes that emphasize different frequencies according to user preference. The TV will play test tones and measure the response of your room. Then, you can compare the before and after results. To begin, run Auto Program to find the available channels. Once complete, you can set up a favorites list and block specific channels if you wish. The TV sports both analog and digital tuners, plus the ability to tune-in unscrambled cable channels.

I was able to connect to my Wi-Fi router by just entering its password. You can also use the Ethernet port on the input panel. Wi-Fi Direct refers to the built-in WiDi function. This is one way to stream content from a compatible device like an Ultrabook without connecting the TV to a network. Smart Features include not only the SmartHub interface, but also voice recognition and remote gesture control.

Voice Recognition is quite extensive. It covers basic remote commands plus more advanced functions like program search. NANO75 G1 OLED. V5 Series V Series M7 Series Quantum M6 Series Quantum OLED D3 Series P Series Quantum E Series M Series Fire TV 4-Series. Fire TV Omni Series. F50 QLED. Fire TV Edition 4k. C Fire TV Fire TV Amazon Fire TV View all TV reviews.

Latest TV Activity. View all TV activity. How We Test We purchase our own TVs and put them under the same test bench, so that you can compare the results easily. Guide Which TV Size? View all TV articles. Having trouble deciding between two TVs? This tool will clearly show you the differences. What TV size to buy.

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