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A brief account of this extremely interesting phase follows here. When the bicameral mind began breaking down, man had to start making decisions. In the bicameral age, the decision making process had been a non-conscious one: some inaccessible mental process after all, most intelligent behavior stems from processes that are inaccessible to us which resulted in an inner voice instructing what to do next.
These are all methods that project the will of the gods, who were still thought to exist, into the external world. So decision making was in this phase a process that took place in the world, not in the mind. What is important here is to understand provoked divination such as sortilege as involving the same kind of generative processes that develop consciousness, but in an exopsychic, nonsubjective manner.
And so the gods were not needed anymore, at least not as instigators of human action. Man learned to picture himself as cause of his own action. And what would be better candidates for the instigators of action than sensations of the intestines? In the Iliad these are kradie , which is the heart, and phrenes , the lungs, and thumos , roughly the feeling of an adrenaline rush, or being in a state of fight-or-flight.
It is thumos which can give strength, thumos which can be spoken to a and which can even speak itself to a man. Phrenes can be filled with anger. Noos is perception, derived from noein , to see. The next important step is that these concepts get even more metaphorical attributes.
All these metaphors are extremely important. In the Odyssey these words get richer and more consciousness-like meanings. The thumos can give a command, the phrenes can even contain the description of a future event, or a secret. The kradie heart gives Odysseus a warning for imminent danger. These are all functions which were in previous eras accomplished by the gods. Once the invention of this mindspace is completed, it leads to an explosion of Old-Greek philosophy.
An entire new domain of knowledge emerges. From what stuff is this newly discovered Mind made? Is it immortal? The Bible Jaynes also uses the Old Testament as a source of evidence. He reads it as a history of mentality. He invites us to compare the books of Amos and Ecclesiastes. The era of the prophets is a transitional phase. Only they can still experience the visions or auditory hallucinations of the gods.
But also these figures lose their power. Around B. After the transition to a new mentality, the time is ripe for a religious reformation. Sin and contrition are now internalized. Vestiges of the bicameral mind An entire part is dedicated to the vestiges of this old mentality in our own minds. This interesting part, which I will not summarize here, contains all kinds of indirect evidence for the development of our present psychological state.
I already mentioned schizophrenia, but also historical phenomenons like oracles and prophecy are taken into account. Until the present age we are reminded that there are phenomena like mediums, possession, hypnosis… these are all mental states that resemble the ancient bicameral mind in the sense that they depend on a lower level of consciousness and an externalization of control. I always thought that the invention of fire and the wheel were the most important breakthroughs in the history of mankind.
After reading The Origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind Julian Jaynes, I wonder if conceptual innovations were not at least as revolutionary. Jaynes makes us realize that mental abilities that we take for granted are in fact hard-won achievements. Brain gymnastics Understanding The Origin requires quite a bit of brain gymnastics. I remember reading for an hour and a humble eight pages or so, feeling excited but exhausted and having to put the book aside.
I would not believe someone who says to have read the entire book within a few days — and claiming to have understood it. It takes time to process the concepts and the new perspective they give on all kinds of familiar phenomena.
Jaynes begins by analyzing subjective consciousness in all its parts. What would remain if we would subtract all these items from our bag of mental tricks — would we still call what remains consciousness? Jaynes asks us, for example, the following. Imagine a culture in which people do not view the future as ahead of them, like we do, and neither as something that they fall into backwards like the old Greek are said to have pictured it in a certain era.
Instead, imagine that in this culture there is no way to visualise time in either direction. In other words: a way of thinking in which time cannot be imagined in a spatial way. Which implications would this have for the psychology of the those people? As Jaynes argues, a lot depends on this apparently simple trick.
And so the demolition continues read the quotes or the summary for a more in-depth account , until finally we can more or less imagine a mentality that differs so radically from our own that it is indeed questionable if we would be right to call it consciousness. He demonstrates how humankind invented, in the course of centuries, a self and an I which can move in a metaphorical space. Propelling behavior, because they were the voices telling people how to act on certain occasions.
Explaining behavior, because they were entities that explained behavior in a kind of proto-mentalistic vocabulary. A vocabulary which lacked concepts such as consideration, choice, memory — let alone the concept of free will. The tricky business of evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology consists, broadly speaking, of two methods. Method one, the modern approach, is to perform experiments — literally in the psychological laboratory — after the workings of modern human mind.
On the basis of what is found there — the talents, the twists, the apparent anachronisms — something is deduced from the psychological environment in which the human mind evolved. Method two is the classical philology: the analysis of word use in ancient texts.
Julian Jaynes uses both methods to reach his spectacular conclusion. And he attaches much value to the textual method two:. Word changes are concept changes and concept changes are behavioral changes. The strongest chapters are those in which he traces the evolution of the meaning of words that were the predecessors of our current mentalistic vocabulary — most notably chapter 5 of the second book: The Intellectual Consciousness of Greece.
Can we learn from textual sources about the way people thought in a certain time? But one could object: how can we be sure that the writers of the Iliad were faithful to reality? Jaynes rejects this option, and I agree with him on this issue. He convincingly explains that the difference between Iliad and Odyssey, between Biblical Amos and Ecclesiastes, is not merely a difference in language. The characters in these stories move in essentially different psychological worlds, in which they perform radically different acts.
The metaphors that we use to describe our everyday actions even determine these actions. This is not merely a matter of putting the same process in different words. Instead, the words create the difference. The less crucial chapters, which are even more speculative, are the method-one chapters. Especially Chapter 5 of Book 1, The Double Brain , in which Jaynes relates the anatomy of our brain to the structure of the bicameral mind. Indeed, it is a nice coincidence that our brain has two sides and that the bimameral mind is also dual in nature.
But the question if the latter can be reduced to the first might be not so crucial after all. Suppose that future research would arrive at radically different insights about the organisation of our brains — not our minds. Another speculative argument, gathered both from ancient texts and present-day psychology, is that the voices which are still heard today by schizophrenics are remnants of the old bicameral mind.
According to Jaynes, this aspect of hallucination was crucial to the inner voices. Jaynes would probably object that this does imply a functional difference, because the absolute authority of the voices could only be attained by the force of hallucination. Although his examples are inspiring and pretty convincing, Jaynes has made himself vulnerable.
Because it may seem to some readers that if one of the pillars of his theory would be removed, the entire building would collapse. However, I consider his theory foremost as a collection of mutually reinforcing hypotheses, none of which is crucial. Put very briefly, this argument goes as follows:.
Subjective consciousness as we know it only came into being after a period of social chaos, which forced people to invent new concepts to deal with this changed environment — and thereby creating a new environment. The new subjective consciousness that emerged is basically a collection of metaphors. Put this briefly, this train of thought is hard to follow. That is why I want to remove three main obstacles along the way.
First, the voices. What on earth are we to make of those? Secondly, the relation between structure of society and the individual minds therein. And finally, the relation between language, metaphor and mind. The story of Odysseus will nicely unite these three problems and their understanding. The voices So what about these voices of the gods? Is Jaynes making supernatural claims about the minds of ancient mankind, as some naive readers have understood it? Not at all. From one perspective, there is nothing strange about people hearing and obeying voices.
What I do have is the ability to direct it a little bit and to confront it. I can frame it; it is embedded in a mental organisation in which it can have an antagonist voice. A second difference, of course, between my voice and bicameral voices is that the latter are hallucinated. I must admit that although Jaynes defends his case in a good way, I still find it hard to accept that hallucinations were a normal part of mental life of past millennia — at least on occasions: people were not hallucinating all the time.
Society and mind Let alone the problem with the voices, many people will understandably just not buy the idea that mankind without consciousness was capable of all the great accomplishments it achieved: the invention of agriculture, pyramids, etcetera. But remember how much intelligent behavior we conscious beings are capable of without using conscious thought.
Conscious thought is only required at certain occasions. Which brings me to the second point. I find it plausible that, in relatively simple and predictable social environments, consciousness is actually not that crucial in everyday life. I quote it here to stress that any person who is embedded, as this farmer is, in a stable, highly cyclical social and economical environment, may not need a lot of introspective conscious thought to function normally.
But compare his mind to the mind of a lone, nomadic person. Any person who is drifting and is insecure of what the next day will bring, has to represent the world and his place therein in different and probably more advanced ways than people in highly organized and predictable societies.
This shift towards higher complexity and individuality is what happened to mankind as a whole in the course of millennia. Metaphor, mind and the story of Odysseus The relation between society and mind brings me to Odysseus. This unbound and lawless hero had to get by without the stability of a social structure.
According to Jaynes, the transition from one mentality to another began in a period of social chaos, in which humankind was torn from its old social equilibrium. Not just in the Origin, but in the history of mankind. Jaynes points at an eery coincidence, namely that the Odyssey, which for Jaynes serves primarily as a source of evidence on the level of word usage and word meaning, is on a topical level about the very same matter that the Origin is about!
The theme of the Odyssey is the journey of its hero towards a new identity. This long journey involves testings, deceit, disguises and recognition. These are concepts that are mostly unheard of in older writings such as the Iliad.
So the emerging theme of the Odyssey is the discovery of a new self, the adventures of a mind that is no longer a puppet of a god. Is this thematic similarity between the Odyssey and the Origin a weird coincidence? First, he reminds us that epics like the Odyssey were primarily orally transmitted by travelling poets aoidoi , who in times of social chaos travelled from refugee camp to refugee camp. So the Odyssey has even more historical significance than we thought it had.
Jaynes claims that a poem like the Odyssey, in oral form, was the vehicle that helped establishing and spreading a new way of thinking. It amounts to this: mankind invented consciousness by telling itself a story about a loner who discovered consciousness. That is how the story of Odysseus has the fascinating property of being at the same time a metaphor for an invention and the invention itself.
This can be so because in this case the invention is metaphor. It teaches us something about the relation between psychology and society, about lost authority and finding a new voice, and about the relation between metaphor and mind. In many academic debates, the name Jaynes pops up, always good for a stir in the discussion.
The book gets more and more credits for its pioneering role. There is a growing sense of acknowledgment that it has, at the very least, created an new and serious topic for discussion. In the words of an early reviewer:. Still, for such a controversial book, it is remarkable how few scholars have made an attempt at an in-depth discussion, either favorable or unfavorable. Probably the former, but I am hedging my bets.
Why all this hesitation? First, the apparent outrageousness of the theory, which not every respected academic would risk his reputation on. And second: the expertise that is required to encompass a broad spectrum of academic disciplines, ranging from neuroscience to Old-Greek literature.
I would add another problem: the fact that some of the arguments are impossible to falsify or affirm. This bold and tantalizing sort of speculation has no or very little backup of any historical evidence. Personally, I find myself exhilirated, but I guess many scientists are simply allergic to this type of reasoning. Daniel Dennett, however, as one of the early advocates of the book, has the following opinion:.
If we are going to use this top-down approach, we are going to have to be bold. We are going to have to be speculative, but there is good and bad speculation, and this is not an unparalleled activity in science. The Origin and its intellectual kin How does the Origin relate to other publications of the era? Apart from is pioneering role, it is not in all respects a revolutionary book. As an exponent of the cognitive revolution in psychology, it is clearly akin to the spirit of the age.
It rejects behavioristic approaches of psychology and favors the view that we must not be afraid of mentalistic terms. The crucial link is that metaphors itself can be the invention. I wonder if and when Jaynes read Dawkins, but he probably would have liked the implications that the concept of the meme has for human psychology as an evolutionary process. So this movement is somewhat of a counter-revolution against the cognitive revolution that I see Jaynes part of.
To make a decision was in this stage an external process more than it is now: it was to peek in the intestines of animals, to watch the stars, and things like that note that this was the period after the collapse of the bicameral mind. A large part of this behavior has since been internalised via metaphor.
Conclusion The merit of Jaynes is that he lets us think about consciousness in a new way. It does not really matter if his sketch of the bicameral mind is right to the level of detail — how could it be, considering the scarce evidence? The merit is that the new perspective is created at all.
Two important things have become clear to me since reading The Origin. First: consciousness depends very much on language and the concepts that a language has at its disposal. To put it in a different way: one could imagine a grammatically fully developed language that still would not produce consciousness in the minds of the people who speak it. And second: how relative is the truth of our own mentalistic jargon! I must admit that I had often goose bumps while reading. Jaynes is a lyrical writer on the occasions he wants to convey the overwhelming scope of his subject matter.
The final paragraphs on Odysseus are an example of his lyrical style. He deals with evolutionary psychology in the most spectacular of historical contexts. This deserves more than a reserved, scientific writing style. Mankind, which lost its gods and had to figure things out on its own.
Poor mankind, which invented all kinds of tricks to discover the intention of its lost gods: throwing sticks, poking in the intestines of animals… Mankind, which began so bravely with its first attempts at introspection. And which was so clever to use its existing vocabulary as source of metaphors to invent a new, inner territory.
But also: a mankind that is doomed to carry on forever without divine support…. This is a history of Biblical proportion. Indeed it is fascinating that even the Bible mentions a watershed in human history. It is the parable of Adam and Eve who eat from the tree of knowledge self knowledge?
It is nowadays common to consider God an invention of the human mind: we are supposed to have invented God, killed God, and now God is dead — at least to some of us. I am glad that for the first time I seem to be able to put in perspective this Biblical order of things, which had always been incomprehensible to me. Goodbye gods, goodbye unassailable authority. Nevermore the comfort of voices that tell us what to do.
So that is our unfortunate fate, but also our grandeur. I have never read a book on evolutionary psychology of such a deep significance. Who then were these gods that pushed men about like robots and sang epics through their lips?
They were voices whose speech and directions could be as distinctly heard by the Iliadic heroes as voices are heard today by certain epileptic and schizophrenic patients, or just as Joan of Arc heard her voices. And if one belonged to a bicameral culture, where the voices were recognized as at the utmost top of the hierarchy, taught you as gods, kings, majesties that owned you, head, heart, and foot, the omniscient, omnipotent voices that could not be categorized as beneath you, how obedient to them the bicameral man!
Populations were continuously increasing. As they did so, problems of social control by hallucinations called gods became more and more complex. The structuring of such a control in a village of a few hundred back at Eynan in the ninth millenium B. And as this complexity develops, there is the first unsureness, the first need for personal gods to intercede with the higher gods, who seem to be receding into the heavens where in one brief millenium they will have disappeared.
One who has no god, as he walks along the street Headache envelops him like a garment. What is authority? Rulers without gods to guide them are fitful and unsure. They turn to omens and divination […]. What is important here is to understand provoked divination such as sortilege as involving the same kind of generative processes that develop consciousness, but in an exopsychic nonsubjective manner.
As the gods recede into special people called prophets or oracles, or are reduced to darkly communicating with men in angels and omen, there whooshes into this power vacuum a belief in demons. The very air of Mesopotamia became darkened with them. Poetry, from describing external events objectively, is becoming subjectified into a poetry of personal conscious expression. In a word, Odysseus of the many devices is the hero of the new mentality of how to get along in a ruined and god-weakened world.
How can one know oneself? All this curious development of the sixth century B. The word soma had meant corpse or deadness, the opposite of psyche as livingness. So now, as psyche becomes soul, so soma remains as its opposite, becoming body. And dualism, the supposed separation of soul and body, has begun.
They [Old-Testamentary prophets] were transitional men, partly subjective and partly bicameral. And once the bright torrent was released and the call came, the nabi [prophet] must deliver his bicameral message, however unsuspecting Amos , however unworthy the nabi felt Exodus ; Isaiah 6; Jeremiah What does it feel like to be a nabi at the beginning of one of his bicameral periods? And then the voices are as a rule no longer actually heard.
In their place is the condsidered subjective thought of moral teachers. Men still had visions and heard dark speech perhaps. But Ecclesiastes and Ezra seek wisdom, not a god. They study the law. Behavior now must be changed from within the new consciousness rather than from Mosaic laws carving behavior from without. Sin and desire are now within conscious desire and conscious contrition, rather than in the external behaviors of the decalogue and the penances of temple sacrifice and community punishment.
The divine kingdom to be regained is psychological not physical. It is metaphorical not literal. We have said that consciousness is an operation rather than a thing, a repository, or a function. It operates on any reactivity, excerpts relevant aspects, narratizes and conciliates them together in a metaphorical space where such meanings can be manipulated like things in space.
Conscious mind is a spatial analog of the world and mental acts are analogs of bodily acts. Consciousness operates only on objectively observable things. Or, to say it another way with echoes of John Locke, there is nothing in consciousness that is not an analog of something that was in behavior first. In a sense, we have become our own gods. But the mind is still haunted with its old unconscious ways; it broods on lost authorities; and the yearning, the deep and hollowing yearning for divine volition and service is with us still.
Een weinig opgemerkte gave van Gerard Reve is zijn handigheid in het gedetailleerd beschrijven van een ruimte of landschap. En natuurlijk de Revistische beschrijvingen van de herenliefde, nooit met schuttingwoorden, maar altijd met bloemrijke synoniemen voor het kostbare liefdesgereedschap. Allemaal terecht, maar vreemd genoeg heb ik nooit iemand gehoord over Reves gave om een ruimte of landschap te karakteriseren.
Bij veel schrijvers, maar niet bij Reve, haast ik me door dergelijke beschrijvingen heen. Wat maakt Reve zo interessant? Deels zijn het de mooi geconstrueerde zinnen en de taaltechnische oplossingen die hij vindt voor het beschrijven van een ingewikkelde ruimte. Hij herschept de ruimte met zijn taal. Ongeveer in het midden werd het vertrek over een afstand van enige meters versmald door de overloop van het trappenhuis.
Voorbij deze inspringende versmalling en er op aansluitend had ik, in de richting van de keuken, langs de muur, achter een hoge stalen boekenkast met gesloten achterwand, voor mijzelve een soort slaaphok gemaakt, groot genoeg om mijn zelfgetimmerde, smalle houten brits te bevatten. In de stalen kast, die met zijn open zijde naar de muur was gekeerd, kon de telefoon staan en voorts alles wat ik nodig had.
De hoge kast ter eenre zijde, de korte wand van de overloop aan mijn hoofdeinde en de huismuur aan de andere zijde sloten mij aan drie kanten veilig in. Wilde ik mij geheel afsluiten, dan behoefde ik slechts bij het voeteneinde van het bed tussen kast en muur een doek te spannen. Reves ongebruikelijke woordkeuze vestigt de aandacht nogal op zichzelf. Is dit niet storend? Ik vind van niet. Het beeld van een ruimte dat Reve oproept is zelden statisch: meestal, zoals ook in boven- en onderstaande voorbeelden, benoemt hij de ingrepen in het appartement:.
Mogelijk was het geheel ooit een grote woonkamer geweest, of zelfs niet meer dan een gedeelte daarvan. De wanden bestonden kennelijk slechts uit hout, holle isolatiebaksteentjes en papier. Een karakterloos karakter weliswaar, door alle plastische ingrepen in wat ooit een mooie grote ruimte was. Reve gaat verder en concentreert zich op de aankleding van het vertrek:. De kerstklokvormige staande lampen en schemerlampen van namaakzijde, of vertikaal geribbelde houten zuiltjes die door het verplaatsen en aanraken kaal en vet geworden waren, dateerden misschien van iets later, maar konden de lelijkheid van het geheel slechts illumineren.
Reve blaast altijd leven in de ruimte. Of de dood. Geschiedenis, aftakeling, verval. Reves schijnt op 23 adressen te hebben gewoond, en was steeds in de weer met verbouwingen. Er is maar weinig lichamelijke arbeid, waar ik van houd al ben ik nogal handig , maar metselen, hoe moeilijk en zwaar het ook is, geeft mij een soort kreatieve gewaarwording en voldoening.
Als Reve net zo goed was in dit kluswerk als in het beschrijven ervan, zal hij geen last meer van lekkages hebben gehad. Ook landschappen zet hij mooi neer. In Oud en Eenzaam beschrijft hij een ondiep meer in een voormalige veenkolonie:. Het was ondiep, en waarschijnlijk mede daarom werd er zo goed als geen watersport bedreven.
Wij schenen de enigen op het water te zijn. Hier en daar bevonden zich kleine eilandjes, van welke het echter heette dat het geen echte eilanden waren doch losse, van de oever losgescheurde stukken moerassige veengrond, die bij hoge waterstand gingen drijven en zich dan verplaatsten. Het enige werkelijke eilandje lag vlak bij het haventje dat wij zojuist verlaten hadden, en terwijl wij er langs voeren, bekeek ik het nieuwsgierig.
Het was kennelijk door mensen aangelegd, mat waarschijnlijk niet meer dan een kleine honderd vierkante meter, en bestond uit een rechthoekige beschoeiing van roestige ijzeren balken en verweerd beton, waarbinnen de grond, die men achter deze afpaling had gestort, daardoor beveiligd werd tegen wegspoelen. Ik vind het treurig en mooi, dit beeld van drijvende stukken moerassige veengrond die voor eilandjes doorgaan. Alweer is de ruimte niet statisch maar in beweging.
Weer is een aspect van de ruimte niet wat het op het eerste gezicht lijkt. Dat Reve kennis had van materialen, funderingen en metselwerk is te begrijpen, gezien zijn bijna levenslange drift tot verbouwen. Wat me meer verbaast, is zijn kennelijke verstand van legermaterieel en -manoeuvres.
In de fictieve verslagen van zijn verleden als soldaat, bijvoorbeeld in Een Circusjongen, zijn de beschrijvingen van het legerleven ongelofelijk gedetailleerd. Onderstaand fragment komt uit het verhaal Thuisfront en beschrijft een manoeuvre voor de noordkust van Sumatra:. De kust werd gevormd door een kilometers brede strook van maritieme bossen, waarvan de boomwortels bij laag tij ongeveer een meter boven het overal aanwezige brakke stinkwater uitstaken: een soort Indische waterlinie, maar dan zonder sneeuw, koude of ijs.
Vroeg of laat ontmoetten zelfs deze vernuftige landvlotten aan een der zijden onvoldoende steun, en schoof het oorlogstuig langzaam maar onherroepelijk zijwaarts het moeras in, waar het reddeloos werd vastgezogen. Ik vind de waarheidsgetrouwheid van deze situatie lastig te beoordelen, maar overtuigend vind ik de beschrijving wel.
Misschien las Reve veel historische werken over het onderwerp? Reve schrijft gedetailleerd en duidelijk. Los van de details, die prima voorstelbaar zijn, heeft het op de lezer een krachtig emotioneel effect. Zij kunnen met een paar grove, schetsmatige streken het effect bereiken van gedetailleerdheid.
Bij Reve is het eerder omgekeerd. Hij schrijft gedetailleerd maar roept een krachtig gevoel op. Bonus: Reves uitvindingen Twee citaten mogen niet ontbreken in dit overzicht. Ten eerste de beschrijving van de werktekeningen van een uitvinding bedoeld voor het Rode Leger, die een uitvinder kwam bespreken met de vader van de jonge Gerard. Het project droeg de schijnbaar in zichzelf tegenstrijdige naam van Landkruiser.
Het behelsde een holle, aan beide uiteinden gesloten, stalen cilinder van omtrent tweehonderd meter lengte en ongeveer honderd meter middellijn, die men zich liggend, als een gigantische holle deegrol zonder handvatten dus, moest voorstellen. Binnenin bevond zich een aantal rijdende geschutbatterijen, die door middel van eigen motorkracht en van tandradbanen op de binnenzijde van de cilinderwand, omhoog konden rijden en aldus, volgens het beginsel van de tredmolen, de cilinder zelf in een draaiende en daardoor voortrollende beweging konden brengen.
De geschutsbatterijen vuurden door synchroon zich openende en sluitende patrijspoorten in de — vele meters dikke — cilinderwand, maar tegen het gevaarte zelf was reeds, nog zonder dat het vuurde, geen enkele versperring bestand: het doorwaadde zelfs diepe rivieren en meren, en verpletterde op zijn weg elk gebouw, fort, of welke andere oneffenheid van het terrein dan ook. Tot slot de volgende passage.
Er is niets inherent grappigs aan de nauwkeurige beschrijving van de vervaardiging van het rietje waarmee hij huisgenoot Jacky Beskeen wil straffen ook uit de Londense episode van Oud en Eenzaam. En toch moet je hopelijk, net als ik, glimlachen. Reve is een genotzuchtig man en het lijkt of hij ook een bepaald beheerst genot put uit het beschrijven van de werkelijkheid. Het had deel uitgemaakt van een rieten armstoel die ik, als gelukkige vondst bij een Londense vuilnisbak, naar mijn kamertje had gesleept.
Ik behandelde dit euvel met stoom, uit de tuit van een fluitketel, en het merendeel der einden rotan werd min of meer recht. Of je nu een stuiverromannetje of een Griekse mythe onder de loep neemt, je komt een hoofdpersoon tegen die voor de uitdaging staat zijn gewone leventje achter zich te laten en een onbekend avontuur aan te gaan. De reis heeft in de meest zuivere vorm 12 fases. Sinds ik Miekes workshop volgde, zie ik de stappen vaak terug in boeken en films.
Bijvoorbeeld in de heerlijk grove zedenkomedie Alleen maar nette mensen. De Proloog 2. De Oproep tot Avontuur 3. Weerstand en Weigering 4. De Ontmoeting met de Mentor 5. De Selectiedrempel 6. De Nieuwe Wereld 7. De Inwijding 8. De Crisis 9. De Dolk De Terugkeer Dood en Wederopstanding Het Elixer.
De proloog We leren de held kennen in zijn gewone leventje. Er ontbreekt iets. De held is zich nog niet bewust van zijn bestemming. Hij weet niet wat hij met zijn leven wil. Hij twijfelt over zijn relatie met Naomi en heeft geen idee wat hij moet studeren. De proloog: verveelde David en Naomi tijdens een etentje met ouders en schoonouders. De oproep tot avontuur De held moet nog in beweging komen: het sluimerende conflict uit de proloog is nog niet ontvlamd.
Dan gebeurt er iets: een brief, een telefoontje, een schijnbaar toevallig ongeluk. De keurige David wordt niet meer opgewonden van zijn even keurige Naomi. Het avontuur lonkt…. De oproep tot avontuur: een heel ander soort dame lacht naar David in de PC Hooftstraat.
Weerstand en weigering De oproep tot avontuur roept weerstand op bij de omgeving, of twijfel bij de held zelf: wil hij dit avontuur echt aangaan? Een middelbare-schoolvriend van David, aan wie hij zijn geheime verlangen heeft verteld, drukt hem op het hart bij Naomi te blijven maar desnoods vreemd te gaan.
Juist door diens botte suggestie realiseert David zich dat hij een punt moet zetten achter de relatie. De ontmoeting met de mentor De held wil de uitdaging aangaan maar moet nog veel leren. Mentors zijn raadgevers, gidsen, karateleraren, tovenaars, die hem voorzien van raad, instrumenten en trucs. Deze legt hem uit wat de mores zijn in de Bijlmer. Later in de film trekt David op met Ryan, door wie hij in contact komt met de schaduwzijden van de nieuwe wereld. De selectiedrempel De voorbereidingen zijn getroffen en de held staat op de drempel van de nieuwe wereld.
Hij moet nu een examen ondergaan. Als hij slaagt, mag hij zijn entree maken. Aangespoord door zijn mentor, waagt David in de club de stap om de indrukwekkende Rowanda aan te spreken. De nieuwe wereld We zijn in de tweede akte van het toneelstuk beland. De held heeft de eerste beproevingen doorstaan en arriveert in een nieuwe, wonderlijke wereld, met andere wetten en regels.
Zijn gevaarlijke reis is echt begonnen. Een serie beproevingen volgt elkaar vanaf nu in snel tempo op. David heeft de test doorstaan en komt terecht in zijn gedroomde wereld. Gelukzalig neemt hij de nieuwe verworvenheden in zich op. De inwijding De held is wijzer geworden door de aangename en minder aangename verrassingen van de nieuwe wereld.
Hij wordt zich bewust van het naderende gevaar en is bijna doorgedrongen tot het hol van de leeuw. Het is voor hem een fase van gewetensonderzoek. Hij moet afrekenen met het deel in zichzelf dat hem gevangen houdt in een beperkt bewustzijn. Onze vriend David is op dit punt aan het doorschieten in zijn nieuwe passie. Zijn lust en nieuwsgierigheid voeren hem naar kelderboxen en een verkeerd soort feestjes. De crisis De crisis is de fase waarin het noodlot toeslaat en de wereld van de held instort.
De held moet afscheid nemen van zijn oude zelf. Door zijn vader wordt hij het huis uit gegooid. Hij staat er alleen voor. De dolk Hoewel de crisis zich eigenlijk al voltrokken heeft, moet de held er nog van doordrongen worden met een laatste dolksteek. Het is het moment van inzicht. Hij moet een symbolische dood sterven en kan dan pas een radicale beslissing nemen. Rowanda is niet het vergevingsgezinde type en probeert hem te castreren. Will add it to the main article.
Pingback: [Mariborchan » Scanners, collectors and aggregators. Pingback: [Urgh! I actually came across this blog post while doing background research for the project and looking for discussions about AAAARG; found out about a lot of projects that I didn't already know about.
One thing that I haven't been able to articulate very well is that I think there's an interesting relationship between, say, Kenneth Goldsmith's own poetry and his founding of Ubu Web; a collation and reconfiguration of the detritus of culture forgotten works of the avant- gardes locked up behind pay walls of their own, or daily minutiae destined to be forgotten , which is something that I was trying to do, in a more circumscribed space, in JJPS Radio.
But the question of distribution of digital works is something I find fascinating, as there are all sorts of avenues that we could be investigating but we are not. The issue, as it often is, is one of technical ability, and that's why one of the future directions of JJPS is to make some of the techniques I used easier to use. Those who want to can always look into the code, which is of course freely available, but that cannot and should not be a prerequisite. I love the JJPS and it would be great if the technology you mention would be easily re-usable.
I see you also have an Open Access and a Cut-up hour. I am very much interested in using different media to communicate scholarly research and even more in remixing and re-mediating textual scholarship. I think your project s is a very valuable exploration of these themes while at the same time being a performative critique of the current system.
I am in awe. And featuring Scribd doesn't help. Q: What's the largest pirate book site on the net, with an inventory almost as large as Amazon? Mike Andrews May 7, ! Not translating the German quotes is very unthoughtful and maybe even arrogant.
If you are interested in open access accessibility needs to be your top priority. I can read German, but many of my friends and most of the world can't. It take a little effort to just fix this, but you can do it.
What are shadow libraries? He wrote that: [! In this account, even large libraries exist in the shadows cast by their monumental precedessors. Almost everyone and every institution has a library, small or large. Take the University of Amsterdam where I now work. So either you have to wait days or weeks for a missing book to be ordered somewhere. So my colleagues keep asking me. You need to scan through dozens of texts, check one page in that book, table of contents of another book, read what that paper is about.
So what do digital libraries do? Digital libraries need to be creative. You can read along someone else. A couple of pages later The strangest book. Digital libraries may seem like virtual, grey places, nonplaces. But these little chance encounters happen all the time there. There are touches. There are traces. There are many hands involved, visible hands. Rather than in a shadow, they are out in the open, in plain sight.
As scholars, as authors, we have reasons to have our works freely accessible by everyone. We do it for feedback, for invites to lecture, for citations. Sounds great. So when after long two, three, four, five years I have my manuscript ready, where will I go? Will I go to an established publisher or an open access press? Traditional publishers have better distribution, and they often have a strong brand. There are no easy answers, but one can always be a little inventive.
In the end, one should not feel guilty for publishing with MIT Press. But at the same time, one should neither feel guilty for scanning and sharing such a book with others. Open Library is now facing the Authors Guild for lending scanned books deaccessioned from libraries. They need our help, our support. They converted all their articles into HTML and put them online.
The most beautiful takedown request we have ever received. What are these digital books? They are poor versions of print books. They come with no binding, no paper, no weight. As a researcher, you just need source code: you need plain text, page numbers, images, working footnotes, relevant data and code.
Here we distinguish between researchers and readers. The access to culture and knowledge for research, educational, noncommercial purposes. A low budget, poor bandwidth access. Thank you. Published online on 21 March It announced that Elio di Rupo, then prime minister of Belgium, was about to sign a collaboration agreement between the archive center and Google.
The newsletter cited an article in the French newspaper Le Monde that coined the Mundaneum as 'Google on paper' . It was our first encounter with many variations on the same theme. The former mining area around Mons is also where Google has installed its largest datacenter in Europe, a result of negotiations by the same Di Rupo. Local politicians wanting to transform the industrial heartland into a home for The Internet Age seized the moment and made the Mundaneum a central node in their campaigns.
Google — grateful for discovering its posthumous francophone roots — sent chief evangelist Vint Cerf to the Mundaneum. Meanwhile, the archive center allowed the company to publish hundreds of documents on the website of Google Cultural Institute. While the visual resemblance between a row of index drawers and a server park might not be a coincidence, it is something else to conflate the type of universalist knowledge project imagined by Paul Otlet and Henri Lafontaine with the enterprise of the search giant.
The statement 'Google on paper' acted as a provocation, evoking other cases in other places where geographically situated histories are turned into advertising slogans, and cultural infrastructures pushed into the hands of global corporations. An international band of artists, archivists and activists set out to unravel the many layers of this mesh.
The direct comparison between the historical Mundaneum project and the mission of Alphabet Inc speaks of manipulative simplification on multiple levels, but to de-tangle its implications was easier said than done. The wiki functioned as an online repository and frame of reference for the work that was developed through meetings, visits and presentations.
For Otlet, the Mondotheque was to be an 'intellectual machine': at the same time archive, link generator, writing desk, catalog and broadcast station. Thinking the museum, the library, the encyclopedia, and classificatory language as a complex and interdependent web of relations, Otlet imagined each element as a point of entry for the other. He stressed that responses to P. The dreamed capacity of his Mondotheque was to interface scales, perspectives and media at the intersection of all those different practices.
For us, by transporting a historical device into the future, it figured as a kind of thinking machine, a place to analyse historical and social locations of the Mundaneum project, a platform to envision our persistent interventions together. The speculative figure of Mondotheque enabled us to begin to understand the situated formations of power around the project, and allowed us to think through possible forms of resistance. MediaWiki is a Free software infrastructure developed in the context of Wikipedia and comes with many assumptions about the kind of connections and practices that are desirable.
We wanted to work with Semantic extensions specifically because we were interested in the way The Semantic Web seemed to resemble Otlet's Universal Decimal Classification system. At many moments we felt ourselves going down rabbit-holes of universal completeness, endless categorisation and nauseas of scale. It made the work at times uncomfortable, messy and unruly, but it allowed us to do the work of unravelling in public, mixing political urgency with poetic experiments.
This Radiated Book was made because we wanted to create a moment, an incision into that radiating process that allowed us to invite many others a look at the interrelated materials without the need to provide a conclusive document. As a salute to Otlet's ever expanding Radiated Library, we decided to use the MediaWiki installation to write, edit and generate the publication which explains some of the welcome anomalies on the very pages of this book.
The four chapters that we propose each mix fact and fiction, text and image, document and catalogue. In this way, process and content are playing together and respond to the specific material entanglements that we encountered. Mondotheque, and as a consequence this Radiated book, is a multi-threaded, durational, multi-scalar adventure that in some way diffracts the all-encompassing ambition that the 19th century Utopia of Mundaneum stood for.
Embedded hierarchies addresses how classification systems, and the dream of their universal application actually operate. It brings together contributions that are concerned with knowledge infrastructures at different scales, from disobedient libraries, institutional practices of the digital archive, meta-data structures to indexing as a pathological condition.
Disambiguation dis-entangles some of the similarities that appear around the heritage of Paul Otlet. Through a close-reading of seemingly similar biographies, terms and vocabularies it relocates ambiguity to other places. Location, location, location is an account of geo-political layers at work. Following the itinerant archive of Mundaneum through the capital of Europe, we encounter local, national and global Utopias that in turn leave their imprint on the way the stories play out.
From the hyperlocal to the global, this chapter traces patterns in the physical landscape. Cross-readings consists of lists, image collections and other materials that make connections emerge between historical and contemporary readings, unearthing possible spiritual or mystical underpinnings of the Mundaneum, and transversal inclusions of the same elements in between different locations.
The point of modest operations such as Mondotheque is to build the collective courage to persist in demanding access to both the documents and the intellectual and technological infrastructures that interface and mediate them. Exactly because of the urgency of the situation, where the erosion of public institutions has become evident, and all forms of communication seem to feed into neo-liberal agendas eventually, we should resist simplifications and find the patience to build a relation to these histories in ways that makes sense.
It is necessary to go beyond the current techno-determinist paradigm of knowledge production, and for this, imagination is indispensable. Sergey and I are seriously in the business of starting new things. Alphabet will also include our X lab, which incubates new efforts like Wing, our drone delivery effort.
We are also stoked about growing our investment arms, Ventures and Capital, as part of this new structure. Alphabet Inc. Paul Otlet, Monde 6. The analyses of these themes are transmitted through narratives -- mythologies or fictions, which I have renamed as "figurations" or cartographies of the present. A cartography is a politically informed map of one's historical and social locations, enabling the analysis of situated formations of power and hence the elaboration of adequate forms of resistance Rosi Braidotti, Nomadic Theory 7.
Some people have said, "Why do I need the Semantic Web? I have Google! But finding things more easily is not the same thing as using the Semantic Web. It's about creating things from data you've complied yourself, or combining it with volumes think databases, not so much individual documents of data from other sources to make new discoveries. It's about the ability to use and reuse vast volumes of data.
Yes, Google can claim to index billions of pages, but given the format of those diverse pages, there may not be a whole lot more the search engine tool can reliably do. We're looking at applications that enable transformations, by being able to take large amounts of data and be able to run models on the fly - whether these are financial models for oil futures, discovering the synergies between biology and chemistry researchers in the Life Sciences, or getting the best price and service on a new pair of hiking boots.
We speak with them about the relationship between the universe of Otlet and the concrete practice of scanning, meta-data and on-line publishing, and the possibilities and limitations of their work with Google. How to imagine a digital archive that could include the multiple relationships between all documents in the collection? How the make visible the continuous work of describing, maintaining and indexing?
EN The interview is part of a series of interviews with Belgian knowledge institutions and their vision on digital information sharing. We hear from them about the differences and similarities in how the three institutions deal with the unruly practice of digital heritage. The full interviews with the Royal Library of Belgium and Ghent University Library can be found in the on-line publication. Il y a des normes qui ne correspondent pas encore. On essaye de remplir le maximum. On le met sur le scanner, on appuie sur un bouton, presque.
Bij Google gaat het om massa-productie. Wij kiezen zelf voor kleinere projecten. We hebben een vaste ploeg, twee mensen die voltijds scannen en beelden verwerken, maar daarmee begin je niet aan een project van We doen wel een scan-ondemand of selecteren volledige collecties. Toen we al onze 2. Hopeloos saai. However, the Mundaneum hired dozens of women to perform these tasks.
This humanrun version of the system was not considered worth mentioning, as if it was a temporary in-between phase that should be overcome as soon as possible, something that was staining the project with its vulgarity.
On ne comprend pas tout de suite grand chose. FS : Qui fait la description? ADV : Elle allait venir! Par exemple, standardiser les bibliografie. En vandaag heeft Google alles samen met de volledige tekst choses pour pouvoir les changer. Vanuit die comment. Il imagine avec les meegegaan. Moesten wij de idealen van Vander Haeghen en pense pouvoir aller plus loin.
Il faut geweest, maar nu niet. Et puis, il y a la fascination de tout un chacun. Ils ne sont pas grands. RC : Vous avez aussi des images sur Wikimedia commons. Je ne peux pas importer un fichier Excel. AV : Mais eux peuvent le faire? Ils ont tout retranscrit. Je ne favorise pas Google. On essaye de faire des expositions virtuelles. ADV : Google serait-il la seule solution pour valoriser vos archives? On est dans un inconfort de travail de base. Donc Google a sa propre politique. Wij hebben wel hun aandacht gevraagd voor het Mundaneum met de link tussen Vander Haeghen en Otlet.
U heeft het Mundaneum gezien, het is een zeer mooi archief, maar dat is het ook. Voor ons zou dat enkel een stuk van een collectie zijn. Ze worden ook op een totaal andere manier gesteund door Google dan wij. SM : Du pacifisme Elk vormde de top van een piramide van weer verdere literatuurstudie, zwanger met de dreiging om af te dwalen. Elk was een strakgespannen koord dat indien niet in acht genomen de auteur in de val van een fout zou lokken, een vondst al uitgevonden en opgeschreven.
Each the apex of a pyramid of further reading, pregnant with the threat of digression, each a thin high wire which, if not observed might lead the author into the fall of error, a finding already found against and written up. Certains documents expliquaient clairement cela. Par exemple, des textes enrichis donnant une perception plus fine, une trace de la recherche. Et donc, autour de catalogues en ligne, notamment, et de notre propre catalogue en ligne. RC : Est-ce que ce serait uniquement en mettant en ligne des documents?
On a des plans, des photos. Drawing from a historic genealogy of public library as the institution of access to knowledge, the proletarian tradition of really useful knowledge and the amateur agency driven by technological development, the curriculum covers a range of segments from immediately applicable workflows for scanning, sharing and using e-books, over politics and tactics around custodianship of online libraries, to applied media theory implicit in the practices of amateur librarianship.
The proposal is made with further development, complexification and testing in mind during the future activities of the Public Library and affiliated organizations. A space where works of literature and science are housed and made accessible for the education of every member of society regardless of their social or economic status. If, as a liberal narrative has it, education is a prerequisite for full participation in a body politic, it is in this narrow institutional space that citizenship finds an important material base for its universal realization.
These developments brought about a flood of books and political demands pushing the library to become embedded in an egalitarian and democratizing political horizon. The historic backdrop for these developments was the rapid ascendancy of the book as a mass commodity and the growing importance of the reading culture in the aftermath of the invention of the movable type print.
Having emerged almost in parallel with capitalism, by the early 18th century the trade in books was rapidly expanding. While in the 15th century the libraries around the monasteries, courts and universities of Western Europe contained no more than 5 million manuscripts, the output of printing presses in the 18th century alone exploded to formidable million volumes.
Two social upheavals would start to change that. On 2 November the French revolutionary National Assembly passed a decision to seize all library holdings from the Church and aristocracy. At the same time capitalism was on the rise, particularly in England.
It massively displaced the impoverished rural population into growing urban centres, propelled the development of industrial production and, by the midth century, introduced the steam-powered rotary press into the commercial production of books. As books became more easily mass-produced, the commercial subscription libraries catering to the better-off parts of society blossomed. This brought the class aspect of the nascent demand for public access to books to the fore.
After the failed attempt to introduce universal suffrage and end the system of political representation based on property entitlements through the Reform Act of , the English Chartist movement started to open reading rooms and cooperative lending libraries that would quickly become a popular hotbed of social exchange between the lower classes.
In the aftermath of the revolutionary upheavals of , the fearful ruling classes finally consented to the demand for tax-financed public libraries, hoping that the access to literature and edification would after all help educate skilled workers that were increasingly in demand and ultimately hegemonize the working class for the benefits of capitalism's culture of self-interest and competition. Various sets of these conditions that are at work in a particular library, also redefine the notion of publishing and of the publication, and in turn the notion of public.
The education provided to the proletariat and the poor by the ruling classes of that time consisted, indeed, either of a pious moral edification serving political pacification or of an inculcation of skills and knowledge useful to the factory owner. Even the seemingly noble efforts of the Society for the Diffusion of the Useful Knowledge, a Whig organization aimed at bringing high-brow learning to the middle and working classes in the form of simplified and inexpensive publications, were aimed at dulling the edge of radicalism of popular movements.
The radical education, reliant on meagre resources and time of the working class, developed in the informal setting of household, neighbourhood and workplace, but also through radical press and communal reading and discussion groups. A historical compromise between a push for radical pedagogy and a response to dull its edge.
And yet with the age of digitization, where one would think that the opportunities for access to knowledge have expanded immensely, public libraries find themselves increasingly limited in their ability to acquire and lend both digital and paper editions. It is a sign of our radically unequal times that the political emancipation finds itself on a defensive fighting again for this material base of pedagogy against the rising forces of privatization.
Not only has mass education become accessible only under the condition of high fees, student debt and adjunct peonage, but the useful knowledge that the labour market and reproduction of the neoliberal capitalism demands has become the one and only rationale for education. The project Public Library was initiated with the counteraction in mind. To help everyone learn to use simple tools to be able to act as an Amateur Librarian — to digitize, to collect, to share, to preserve books and articles that were unaffordable, unavailable, undesirable in the troubled corners of the Earth we hail from.
Amateur Librarian played an important role in the narrative of Public Library. And it seems it was successful. Public Library detects an institutional crisis in education, an economic deadlock of austerity and a domination of commodity logic in the form of copyright. To understand the political and technological assumptions and further develop the strategies that lie behind the counteractions of amateur librarians, we propose a curriculum that is indebted to a tradition of critical pedagogy.
Critical pedagogy is a productive and theoretical practice rejecting an understanding of educational process that reduces it to a technique of imparting knowledge and a neutral mode of knowledge acquisition. The denial of access to outrageously expensive academic publications for many universities, particularly in the Global South, stands in stark contrast to the super-profits that a small number of commercial publishers draws from the free labour of scientists who write, review and edit contributions and the extortive prices their institutional libraries have to pay for subscriptions.
It is thus here that the amateur librarianship attains its poignancy for a critical pedagogy, inviting us to closer formulate and unfold its practices in a shared process of discovery. The curriculum in amateur librarianship develops aspects and implications of this definition. Parts of this curriculum have evolved over a number of workshops and talks previously held within the Public Library project, parts of it are yet to evolve from a process of future research, exchange and knowledge production in the education process.
While schematic, scaling from the immediately practical, over strategic and tactical, to reflexive registers of knowledge, there are actual — here unnamed — people and practices we imagine we could be learning from. The first iteration of this curriculum could be either a summer academy rostered with our all-star team of librarians, designers, researchers and teachers, or a small workshop with a small group of students delving deeper into one particular aspect of the curriculum.
In short it is an open curriculum: both open to educational process and contributions by others. We welcome comments, derivations and additions. From Voor elk boek is een gebruiker: FS: Hoe gaan jullie om met boeken en publicaties die al vanaf het begin digitaal zijn? DM: We kopen e-books en e-tijdschriften en maken die beschikbaar voor onderzoekers.
Maar dat zijn hele andere omgevingen, omdat die content niet fysiek binnen onze muren komt. We kopen toegang tot servers van uitgevers of de aggregator. Die content komt nooit bij ons, die blijft op hun machines staan. We kunnen daar dus eigenlijk niet zoveel mee doen, behalve verwijzen en zorgen dat het evengoed vindbaar is als de print.
Library as Infrastructure. Our beloved bookscanner. How to: Bookscanning. History of Libraries of the Western World. Henry A. From Amateur Librarian - A Course in Critical Pedagogy: No industry in the present demonstrates more the asymmetries of control over the conditions of production of knowledge than the academic publishing. A bag but is language nothing of words language is nothing but a bag of words MICHAEL MURTAUGH In text indexing and other machine reading applications the term "bag of words" is frequently used to underscore how processing algorithms often represent text using a data structure word histograms or weighted vectors where the original order of the words in sentence form is stripped away.
While "bag of words" might well serve as a cautionary reminder to programmers of the essential violence perpetrated to a text and a call to critically question the efficacy of methods based on subsequent transformations, the expression's use seems in practice more like a badge of pride or a schoolyard taunt that would go: Hey language: you're nothin' but a big BAG-OF-WORDS. BAG OF WORDS In information retrieval and other so-called machine-reading applications such as text indexing for web search engines the term "bag of words" is used to underscore how in the course of processing a text the original order of the words in sentence form is stripped away.
The resulting representation is then a collection of each unique word used in the text, typically weighted by the number of times the word occurs. Bag of words, also known as word histograms or weighted term vectors, are a standard part of the data engineer's toolkit. But why such a drastic transformation? The utility of "bag of words" is in how it makes text amenable to code, first in that it's very straightforward to implement the translation from a text document to a bag of words representation.
More P. For instance, a number of libraries available in the booming field of "data sciences" work with "high dimension" vectors; bag of words is a way to transform a written document into a mathematical vector where each "dimension" corresponds to the relative quantity of each unique word. While physically unimaginable and abstract imagine each of Shakespeare's works as points in a 14 million dimensional space , from a formal mathematical perspective, it's quite a comfortable idea, and many complementary techniques such as principle component analysis exist to reduce the resulting complexity.
What's striking about a bag of words representation, given is centrality in so many text retrieval application is its irreversibility. Given a bag of words representation of a text and faced with the task of producing the original text would require in essence the "brain" of a writer to recompose sentences, working with the patience of a devoted cryptogram puzzler to draw from the precise stock of available words. While "bag of words" might well serve as a cautionary reminder to programmers of the essential violence perpetrated to a text and a call to critically question the efficacy of methods based on subsequent transformations, the expressions use seems in practice more like a badge of pride or a schoolyard taunt that would go: Hey language: you're nothing but a big BAG-OF-WORDS.
Following this spirit of the term, "bag of words" celebrates a perfunctory step of "breaking" a text into a purer form amenable to computation, to stripping language of its silly redundant repetitions and foolishly contrived stylistic phrasings to reveal a purer inner essence. The idea was for both senders and receivers of telegraph messages to use the books to translate their messages into a sequence of code words which can then be sent for less money as telegraph messages were paid by the word.
In the front of the book, a list of examples gives a sampling of how messages like: "Have bought for your account bales of cotton, March delivery, at 8. In each case the reduction of number of transmitted words is highlighted to underscore the efficacy of the method. Like a dictionary or thesaurus, the book is primarily organized around key words, such as act, advice, affairs, bags, bail, and bales, under which exhaustive lists of useful phrases involving the corresponding word are provided in the main pages of the volume.
The idea was to use a single code word instead of an entire phrase, thus saving money by serving as an information compression technology. Generally economy won out over  secrecy, but in specialized cases, secrecy was also important. In Katherine Hayles' chapter devoted to telegraph code books she observes how: The interaction between code and language shows a steady movement away from a human-centric view of code toward a machine-centric view, thus anticipating the  development of full-fledged machine codes with the digital computer.
Aspects of this transitional moment are apparent in a notice included prominently inserted in the Lieber's code book: After July, , all combinations of letters that do not exceed ten will pass as one cipher word, provided that it is pronounceable, or that it is taken from the following languages: English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese or Latin - International Telegraphic Conference, July Conforming to international conventions regulating telegraph communication at that time, the stipulation that code words be actual words drawn from a variety of European languages many of Lieber's code words are indeed arbitrary Dutch, German, and Spanish words P.
What telegraph code books do is remind us of is the relation of language in general to economy. Whether they may be economies of memory, attention, costs paid to a telecommunicatons company, or in terms of computer processing time or storage space, encoding language or knowledge in any form of writing is a form of shorthand and always involves an interplay with what one expects to perform or "get out" of the resulting encoding.
Along with the invention of telegraphic codes comes a paradox that John Guillory has noted: code can be used both to clarify and occlude. Among the sedimented structures in the technological unconscious is the dream of a universal language. Uniting the world in networks of communication that flashed faster than ever before, telegraphy was particularly suited to the idea that intercultural communication could become almost effortless.
In this utopian vision, the effects of continuous reciprocal causality expand to global proportions capable of radically transforming the conditions of human  life. That these dreams were never realized seems, in retrospect, inevitable. In addition to the phrases ordered by keywords, the book includes a number of tables of terms for specialized use.
From an archaeological perspective, the Lieber's code book reveals a cross section of the needs and desires of early 20th century business communication between the United States and its trading partners. The advertisements lining the Liebers Code book further situate its use and that of commercial telegraphy. Among the many advertisements for banking and law services, office equipment, and alcohol are several ads for gun powder and explosives, drilling equipment and metallurgic services all with specific applications to mining.
Extending telegraphy's formative role for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication for reasons of safety, commercial telegraphy extended this network of communication to include those parties coordinating the "raw materials" being mined, grown, or otherwise extracted from overseas sources and shipped back for sale. We want unadulterated data. OK, we have to ask for raw data now. And I'm going to ask you to practice that, OK? Can you say "raw"?
Audience: Raw. Tim Berners-Lee: Can you say "data"? Audience: Data. TBL: Can you say "now"? Audience: Now! TBL: Alright, "raw data now"! From The Smart City - City of Knowledge: As new modernist forms and use of materials propagated the abundance of decorative elements, Otlet believed in the possibility of language as a model of 'raw data', reducing it to essential information and unambiguous facts, while removing all inefficient assets of ambiguity or subjectivity. So, we're at the stage now where we have to do this -the people who think it's a great idea.
And all the people -- and I think there's a lot of people at TED who do things because -- even though there's not an immediate return on the investment because it will only really pay off when everybody else has done it -- they'll do it because they're the sort of person who just does things which would be good if everybody else did them. OK, so it's called linked data.
I want  you to make it. I want you to demand it. However, this information is often scattered among many web servers and hosts, using many different formats. If these chunks of information could be extracted from the World Wide Web and integrated into a structured form, they would form an unprecedented source of information. It would include the largest international directory of people, the largest and most diverse databases of products, the greatest bibliography of academic works, and many other useful resources.
The "baskets" they mention stem from the origins of "market basket" techniques developed to find correlations between the items recorded in the purchase receipts of supermarket customers. In their case, they deal with web pages rather than shopping baskets, and words instead of purchases. In transitioning to the much larger scale of the web, they describe the usefulness of their research in terms of its computational economy, that is the ability to tackle the scale of the web and still perform using contemporary computing power completing its task in a reasonably short amount of time.
A traditional algorithm could not compute the large itemsets in the lifetime of the universe. In this paper we experiment with word usage in documents on the World Wide Web see Section 4. This data set is fundamentally different from a supermarket data set. Each document has roughly distinct words on average, as compared to roughly 10 items for cash register transactions. We restrict ourselves to a subset of about 24 million documents from the web. This set of documents contains over 14 million distinct words, with tens of thousands of them occurring above a reasonable support threshold.
Very many sets of  these words are highly correlated and occur often. It goes something like this: you the programmer have managed to cobble out a lovely "content management system" either from scratch, or using any number of helpful frameworks where your user can enter some "items" into a database, for instance to store bookmarks.
After this ordered items are automatically presented in list form say on a web page. The author: It's great, except The problem stems from the fact that the database ordering a core functionality provided by any database somehow applies a sorting logic that's almost but not quite right. The often exascerbated programmer might hastily add an additional database field so that each item can also have an "order" perhaps in the form of a date or some other kind of alpha numerical "sorting" value to be used to correctly order the resulting list.
But one might well ask, why not just edit the resulting listing as a document? Not possible! Contemporary content management systems are based on a data flow from a "pure" source of a database, through controlling code and templates to produce a document as a result. The document isn't the data, it's the end result of an irreversible process. This problem, in this and many variants, is widespread and reveals an essential backwardness that a particular "computer scientist" mindset relating to what constitutes "data" and in particular it's relationship to order that makes what might be a straightforward question of editing a document into an over-engineered database.
Recently working with Nikolaos Vogiatzis whose research explores playful and radically subjective alternatives to the list, Vogiatzis was struck by how from the earliest specifications of HTML still valid today have separate elements OL and UL for "ordered" and "unordered" lists.
The representation of the list is not defined here, but a bulleted list for unordered lists, and a sequence of numbered paragraphs for an ordered list would be quite appropriate. Vogiatzis' surprise lay in the idea of a list ever being considered "unordered" or in opposition to the language used in the specification, for order to ever be considered "insignificant".
Indeed in its suggested representation, still followed by modern web browsers, the only difference between the two visually is that UL items are preceded by a bullet symbol, while OL items are numbered. The idea of ordering runs deep in programming practice where essentially different data structures are employed depending on whether order is to be maintained.
The indexes of a "hash" table, for instance also known as an associative array , are ordered in an unpredictable way governed by a representation's particular implementation. This data structure, extremely prevalent in contemporary programming practice sacrifices order to offer other kinds of efficiency fast text-based retrieval for instance.
Whether speaking of bales of cotton, barrels of oil, or bags of words, what links these subjects is the way in which the notion of "raw material" obscures the labor and power structures employed to secure them. The shift from human reading to machine reading involves a shift of responsibility from the individual human body to the obscured responsibilities and seemingly inevitable forces of the "machine", be it the machine of a market or the machine of an algorithm. The computer scientists' view of textual content as "unstructured", be it in a webpage or the OCR scanned pages of a book, reflect a negligence to the processes and labor of writing, editing, design, layout, typesetting, and eventually publishing, collecting and cataloging .
This presence is proof of the materiality of information production, and becomes a sign of the economies and paradigms of efficiency and profitability that are involved. Computer scientists often view text through the eyes of their particular reading algorithm, and in the process voluntarily blind themselves to the work practices which have produced and maintain these "resources". Berners-Lee, in chastising his audience of web publishers to not only publish online, but to release "unadulterated" data belies a lack of imagination in considering how language is itself structured and a blindness to the need for more than additional technical standards to connect to existing publishing practices.
Hayles 4. Lieber's 5. Hayles 6. Both types of texts are worth considering preserving in libraries. The online environment has created its own hybrid form between text and library, which is key to understanding how digital text produces difference. Historically, we have been treating texts as discrete units, that are distinguished by their material properties such as cover, binding, script.
These characteristics establish them as either a book, a magazine, a diary, sheet music and so on. One book differs from another, books differ from magazines, printed matter differs from handwritten manuscripts. Each volume is a self-contained whole, further distinguished by descriptors such as title, author, date, publisher, and classification codes that allow it to be located and referred to.
The demarcation of a publication as a container of text works as a frame or boundary which organises the way it can be located and read. Researching a particular subject matter, the reader is carried along by classification schemes under which volumes are organised, by references inside texts, pointing to yet other volumes, and by tables of contents and indexes of subjects that are appended to texts, pointing to places within that volume.
So while their material properties separate texts into distinct objects, bibliographic information provides each object with a unique identifier, a unique address in the world of print culture. Such identifiable objects are further replicated and distributed across containers that we call libraries, where they can be accessed.
The online environment however, intervenes in this condition. It establishes shortcuts. Through search engine, digital texts can be searched for any text sequence, regardless of their distinct materiality and bibliographic specificity. This changes the way they function as a library, and the way its main object, the book, should be rethought. These are some of the lines along which online texts appear to produce difference.
The first contrasts the distinct printed publication to the machine-readable text, the second the bibliographic information to the URL, and the third the library to the search engine. The introduction of full-text search has created an environment in which all machine-readable online documents in reach are effectively treated as one single document.
For any text-sequence to be locatable, it doesn't matter in which file format it appears, nor whether its interface is a database-powered website or mere directory listing. As long as text can be extracted from a document, it is a container of text sequences which itself is a sequence in a 'book' of the web.
Even though this is hardly news after almost two decades of Google Search ruling, little seems to have changed with respect to the forms and genres of writing. Loyal to standard forms of publishing, most writing still adheres to the principle of coherence, based on units such as book chapters, journal papers, newspaper articles, etc. From Voor elk boek is een gebruiker: FS: Maar het gaat toch ook over de manier waarop jullie toegang bieden, de bibliotheek als interface?
Online laten jullie dat nu over aan Google. Je kan doorheen al die collecties zoeken en dat is ook weer een stukje van die originele droom van Otlet en Vander Haeghen, het idee van een wereldbibliotheek. Voor elk boek is er een gebruiker, de bibliotheek moet die maar gaan zoeken. Dat is een andere manier van lezen die zelfs Otlet zich niet had kunnen voorstellen.
Ze zouden zot worden moesten ze dit weten. Still, the scope of textual forms appearing in search results, and thus a corpus of texts in which they are being brought into, is radically diversified: it may include discussion board comments, product reviews, private emails, weather information, spam etc. Rather than being published in a traditional sense, all these texts are produced onto digital networks by mere typing, copying, OCR-ing, generated by machines, by sensors tracking movement, temperature, etc.
Even though portions of these texts may come with human or non-human authors attached, authors have relatively little control over discourses their writing gets embedded in. This is also where the ambiguity of copyright manifests itself. Libraries in this sense are not restricted to digitised versions of physical public or private libraries as we know them from history. Commercial search engines, intelligence agencies, and virtually all forms of online text collections can be thought of as libraries.
The author's intentions of partaking in this or that discourse are confronted by discourse-conditioning operations of retrieval algorithms. They are all libraries, each containing a single 'book' whose pages are URLs with timestamps and geostamps in the form of IP address. The decisions about who, to which sections and under which conditions is to be admitted are From Amateur Librarian - A Course informed by a mix of copyright laws, corporate agendas, in Critical Pedagogy: management hierarchies, and national security issues.
As books became more easily massVarious sets of these conditions that are at work in a produced, the commercial subscription libraries catering to the particular library, also redefine the notion of publishing better-off parts of society blossomed. This brought the class aspect of the Corporate journal repositories exploit publicly funded research by renting it only to libraries which can afford it; intelligence agencies are set to extract texts from any moving target, basically any networked device, apparently in public interest and away from the public eye; publiclyfunded libraries are being prevented by outdated copyright laws and bureaucracy from providing digitised content online; search engines create a sense of giving access to all public record online while only a few know what is excluded and how search results are ordered.
Their countertechniques for negotiating the publicness of publishing include self-archiving, open access, book liberation, leaking, whistleblowing, open source search algorithms and so on. Digitization and posting texts online are interventions in the procedures that make search possible. Operating online collections of texts is as much about organising texts within libraries, as is placing them within books of the web. Originally written June in Prague, Brno and Vienna for a talk given at the Technopolitics seminar in Vienna on 16 June Revised 29 December in Bergen.
That evening the sun was tender in drawing its shadows across the lines of his face. The eyes gazed softly into a close middle distance, as if composing a line upon a translucent page hung in the middle of the air, the hands tapping out a stanza or two of music on legs covered by the brown folds of a towelling dressing gown. He had the air of someone who had seen something of great amazement but yet lacked the means to put it into language.
As I got to know the patient over the next few weeks I learned that this was not for the want of effort. Latin biological names, the magnificent table of elements, metric units of measurement, the nomenclature of celestial objects from clouds to planets, anatomical parts and medical conditions all had their own systems of naming beyond any specific tongue. This was an attempt to bring reason into speech and record, but there were other means to do so when reality resisted these early measures.
The dabbling, he reflected, had become a little more than that. He had subscribed to journals in the language, he wrote letters to colleagues and received them in return. A few words of world-speak remained readily on his tongue, words that he spat out regularly into the yellow-wallpapered lounge of the sanatorium with a disgust that was lugubriously palpable.
According to my records, and in piecing together the notes of previous doctors, there was something else however, something more profound that the language only hinted at. Just as the postal system did not require the adoption of any language in particular but had its P. More thrilling than the question of language indeed was that of the system of organisation upon which linguistic symbols are inscribed.
Suffice it to say that in its use I enjoyed the highest form of spiritual pleasure, and organisational efficiency, a profound flowering of intellect in which every thought moved between its enunciation, evidence, reference and articulation in a mellifluous flow of ideation and the gratification of curiosity. All were integrated into the system. As I gained the trust of the patient, there was a sense in which he estimated me as something of a junior collaborator, a clerk to his natural role as manager.
A lucky, if slightly doubtful, young man whom he might mentor into efficiency and a state of full access to information. For his world, there was not the corruption and tiredness of the old methods. Ideas moved faster in his mind than they might now across the world. That it can answer any question respecting any thought about which one has had an enquiry is but the smallest of its merits. More important is the fact that it continually calls attention to matters requiring such attention.
Much of his discourse was about the optimum means of arrangement of the system, there was an art to laying out the cards. As the patient further explained, to meet the objection that loose cards may easily be mislaid, cards may be tabbed with numbers from one to ten. When arranged in the drawer, these tabs proceed from left to right across the drawer and the absence of a single card can thus easily be detected.
The cards are further arranged between coloured guide cards. As an alternative to tabbed cards, signal flags may be used. Here, metal clips may be attached to the top end of the card and that stand out like guides. For use of the system in relation to dates of the month, the card is printed with the numbers 1 to 31 at the top.
The metal clip is placed as a signal to indicate the card is to receive attention on the specified day. There were numerous means of working the cards, special techniques for integrating them into any type of research or organisation, means by which indexes operating on indexes could open mines of information and expand the knowledge and capabilities of mankind.
Wilfried weet alles bij voorbaat al en kon tot op heden niet worden betrapt op zelfs maar een toefje nieuwsgierigheid naar een gast.
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