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But also well-water: in the humid heat of the forest, thin trickles of cool, thirst-quenching water never run dry. Muddy water in rivers like the Solimoes, the Madeira, the Jurua and the Purus; blue water like that of the Tocatins; green water in the Tapajoz and Xingu. The black waters of the Rio An- dira reflect all the colours of the rainbow.
The twin townships of Tabatinga in Brazil and Leticia in Colombia stand side-by-side and look out across the river on the small and long- suffering settlement ofRamon Castilla in Peru on the other bank, which has already been devastated eleven times by the havoc wrought by the river as it washed away all the fertile land. I spent day after day travelling in a small craft with its engine amidships. I spent hour after hour on the river without meeting a living soul. Standing in the prow was a caboclo 4 making signs with his oar, as if he were calling for help.
He was afinefigure ofa man, with a radiant expression, but he was bowed down with grief, for one ofhisyoung children had just died, carried off by fever, with no one to help. The waters of the Amazon go through an endless cycle, starting with the time known as the "first waters", when the river starts showing signs of wanting to rise, followed by the full flood, the en- chente, and then the falling flood, or vazante.
Everywhere in Amazonia, not only deep in the forest or along the water's edge but in settlements and urban centres, man feels the beneficial or adverse impact of the rising and falling of the river, in his home, in his food, in his daily labour.
The fluctuating pattern of the river is a constant in the decisions people make in organizing their lives since it is also bound up with economic cycles. If there is a sharp fall in river level, the harvest will be plentiful, since the inundated low-lying areas will have been made very fertile by the mineral salts and organic matter brought down by the river. This is the season for fishing, and a good time to plant.
By contrast, heavy floods mean disaster and suffering: the fish hide in stagnant pools that can only be reached through forest trails, crops are destroyed, livestock have to be driven to higher ground or herded quickly into the maromba, a kind of narrow enclosure standing on stilts, where they are liable to attack by sucuruji snakes; the lower parts of the houses remain under water, and the snakes come and threaten the domestic animals.
Man is at the mercy of the river, but he does not lose heart. He waits for the waters to recede and hopes to make the most of the land enriched by flooding. The river dictates his behaviour and he 10 is always at the river's beck and call. If he fails to comply, he is condemned. And yet they are the brothers of those resourceful and changeless elements: water, wind and hope. Come with me and learn about the river and Us laws. Come with me and learn the science of the whirlpool.
Come and listen to the birds of the night in the magical silence of the igapo, draped in emerald stars. Whereas in Genesis it was the countenance of God, today it is hope that shines on the waters of my river.
There is no end to man's courage. But our main fear is that the forest is starting to tire of being ill-treated to the extent it has been. Rainfall is a regular feature of the virgin forest, not only during the winter months when the rain falls in solid sheets for days without ever letting up. Even in summer, which is supposed to be the dry season, the rain never stops.
The cloudburst sweeps down and the Amazonian storm and wind blow in gusts. Above left, a young Yagua Indian from the left bank of the Amazon. In some places the dense tropical vegetation makes navigation virtually impossible. I had been spending the day in a Yagua Indian village talking of one thing or another with a young tuchaua, or witchdoctor, who knew a good deal about the datura and other magical plants. It was during the flood season. We sailed up-river keeping close to the forest-lined bank and were about halfway when the storm broke.
From the stern, where he was operating the motor, my Indian friend said quietly: "This is going to be terrible". Close by him, in the bottom of the boat, was his small son, all hunched up against the cold. I can still see myself on the seat, turning round and noticing, before it became completely dark, the brightness of his enormous eyes, intense with fear. Up front, on a narrow seat, shirtless, was the caboclo Luis Rios, a native of Choriaco.
We went headlong into the storm without saying a word, bound together in our silence. As the speed of the current increased, the canoe started shaking and reared up on the crest of the wave before falling back with a crash. The rain was lashing against us from all sides. The time soon came when we could see absolutely nothing and were surrounded by darkness. Moron tipped the motor towards him, so that the propeller was out of the water', safe from the risk of damage.
Our only help came from the lightning flashes, which split the sky in two. In the fleeting moment of illumination, we could see an enormous trunk, a whole piece of a tree with its branches still green with leaves, bearing down on us. Swiftly and silently, with a flick of the rudder, Moron moved the canoe away from the obstacle.
It was so dark that I could not see my hand a few centimetres away from my face, yet time and again I was certain that the Indian Moron managed to see something of the river and its banks in the midst of the pitch blackness. He was able to see or at least his ears or all his other very keen senses told him that something was coming towards the boat. For instance, he would suddenly bear to the left and then straighten up the craft again by throttling back the motor, while out of his half-open mouth there came a raucous cry, brief but powerful which, as if by a miracle, could be heard above the shrieking and howling of the storm.
It was as if he were the kinsman of the river. The storm abated shortly before we reached Choriaco. I now feel the time has come for me to recount two things that happened that night. First, we had barely entered the approaches to the Parana of Choriaco when we saw several canoes coming in our direction.
Their occupants were the men and women of the area. I shall never forget them. They had been expecting usin the early hours of the night but they had realized that, since we were late, we must have been caught in the storm, and they had decided to set out and come to our help. When they saw us, a great prolonged cry of joy went up among them. Second, after the storm was over, the sky lit up with starsall the starswhich, enormous, began to shine as they floated free and unimpeded in the vast space of the Amazonian night.
By extension, a small tributary or a channel between two islands or two rivers. CONGO 4, km. Rises in the Shaba region of Zaire as the Lualaba River, but its remotest source lies between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi, in Zambia, as the Chambesi river; empties into the Atlantic Ocean discharge: 41, cubic metres per second of basin: 3,, sq, km.
In the rapids they build ingenious wooden scaffolding structures from which are suspended man cone-shaped fish traps. For do nof envy the ocean. Do you know the River, just up-stream of M'Foa and Kinshasa? When the boat leaves the port and obliquely fends the fantasia of foam, its smoke still holds in long suspension the dream of the dreamer who follows it from the quays. If you have never made the pilgrimage to Loango, do not hold out the begging Comparatively little of the vast hydroelectric potential of the Congo basinestimated to be in the region of ,, kilowatts- has so far been harnessed.
Above, the hydroelectric dam at Inga, about 40 kilometres upstream from Matadi, was completed in with an installed capacity of , kilowatts. The Inga dam represents only the first phase of a grandiose scheme which, if completed, would make this site the largest hydroelectric complex in the world, with a potential capacity of 30,, kilowatts.
The river has been emptied. Don't go to the river. Go straight to school We have enough water in our well; I will fill you the big pool and you can amuse yourself as you like Beware, my child, not to the river. He will tell you about Ngando the magnanimous returning his prey. Do not say, with a sophisticated scholar's smile, that this is the world of tales, as beautiful as the unreason of styles, but a world which the present age has swept away.
The outboard motor- boat fends the liquid and my heart breaks. Look at these men of water and nets on M'Bamou Island. And listen to them too. Above all listen to them when the tom-tom throbs to sing the bride and groom, to calm the river's pain, or simply to drive away the mosquitoes. Only yesterday a young man from the city came and, sneering, bathed there. All the arts of the swimming pool at his fingertips.
He went straight to the bottom. Yes, right before our eyes. Why do you not learn the wisdom of silence and humility? By listening to the leaves of night, they could tell of the adventure that bends Congo. As for those boats of yours Nodules of noise and grease The fish have lost their flesh. Nothing but bones, bones, bones! Pass by, tenacious islets.
No one will know the secret of the water hyacinths. Neither the source nor the sky. Oh, you we wished to adore! Even my song of awakening goes astray, caught up in your gluey toils. There must be a return to the water, to wet the feet there, for the washing of the hands, the face and the mouth. These waters gave life. Always by surprise.
Such is the rule, without explanation. Traveller deprived of muscled breasts, beware the eyes of our waters. Beware the beauty who glistens as she looks at a sky the colour of a rascally lover. The Congo waterway system comprises a navigable network totalling some 1 3, kilometres. They roll, rush and sink in the elements.
Power of light or of carcass, whatever you wish, what matter the geographer's figures. It can be sensed. They came from the summit of the sea. They asked for your papers and we declared Nzadi, Nzadi the River, naturally. Zaire repeated their clumsy throats and they wrote it down on their sea- route.
But we do not give in, in spite of the seasons and the centuries. The brothers, over there, only remember two cradles: the other is Guinea. Congo, then, baptismal fonts notwithstanding. We knew better, for once! This meander led only to the court of the Makoko, that one to the court of Mani Kongo. Who has only one name, when all's said and done? There is the name given at birth. The name given at circumcision. That which is won in combat. That of the enemy. That of the time of the white beard.
And so it is with you: Oyez for Lukuga, oyez for Ruzizi, oyez for Luapulu, oyez for Luvua, oyez for Lualaba, oyez for the mystery of the heavenly host. And that's only part of the magic. Where does the lazy water end, the alphabet of your course? A weakling, at first you do not yet dare run. And here is the inferno where the water can be heard seething, whirling in the dance of the demented, hurled in burning spray above the rocks, stirred up by an unmanageable fire down there beneath the crust.
Paralysed and delighted, the indifferent traveller suddenly wants to question the heavens. Barges ahoy! One side effect of this has been that a number of the older smaller barges, though still riverworthy, are lying unused because they are no longer economic to run.
However, the construction and technical characteristics of these traditional barges make them easy to convert to a wide range of other purposes. The Rhine It was the voice of the noblest of rivers, The voice of the free-born Rhine; To other fields hope guided him, when, high up there, He bade his kin the Tessin and the Rhone farewell; Drunk with the taste of travel, eager to depart, His regal soul to Asia drew him on. This operation, which is destined to last for seven years, is aimed at bringing new life to New York's waterfront.
The speed with which the village could be assembled and its low capital and maintenance costs offer a rapid answer to the municipal authorities' needs. Flat-bottomed, forty metres long, five metres wide and four metres high, the traditional barge, dating from the beginning of the century, has all the characteristics necessary for adaptation to multiple uses.
The living-quarters, narrow, functional cabins, are situated aft, separated from the hold by the propulsion unit which usually runs on diesel, although gas, petrol or coal-fired engines may be used. The hold offers a large space easily convertible to any use. Transformed into an audio-visual viewing room, for example, it could comfortably seat eight people.
Similarly, if converted for tourist travel, it could house ten cabins approximately the size of a railway sleeping-compartment. Studies being undertaken for the Government of Colombia show that the hold of a barge converted to hospital purposes could house some thirty beds, whilst the bridge could be used as a reception and outpatient treatment area. Several of these more or less permanently-moored, floating hospital wards could be serviced by a small number of more mobile barges equipped as operating theatres or analytical laboratories on which major surgical operations or medical investigations could be carried out.
This flexible type of organization has much to recommend it, particularly in developing countries where patients often have to make long and arduous journeys to reach the nearest land- based hospital. Mobile riverborne medical units would make it easier to maintain closer contact with larger and often widely dispersed populations and would avoid the much heavier cost of land-based medical centres. Large numbers of barges of traditional type are now available on the market.
Danube flows through 8 countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Fed. It was on this waterway which marked the frontier of Latin Europe that the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius composed his Meditations, a work which would be a source of consolation to later generations of Europeans. But long before then the Danube had been woven into the history of peoples who had crossed it and sailed Memoirs of Europe's mainstream by Friedrich Heer its length. The flumen Danubius of the Romans who called its lower reaches the Ister , it had previously been the river of the Celts, as indicated by its name which recalls that of a Celtic god.
The Donau of the Germans and the Austrians, the Dunaj of the Slovaks, the Duna of the Hungarians, the Dunav of the Serbo-Croats, the Dunarea of the Romanians, this sombre mother would offer peoples a journey a journey to life and trade, a journey to war and death. With its abundantJjish it gave sustenance to the fishermen who settled on its banks. Some years ago traces of an ancient culture were found on the shores of the Danube in Bulgaria. Strange sculptures depicted gods emerging from the river.
Gods of eternal life or gods of death? Let us briefly follow the course of the Danube from its birth in the mountains until it is engulfed by the sea for, like life itself, it is born, grows, and hastens to its dissolution. Here the Brigach, the Breg and another stream unite. Not yet laden with history and ships, it flows smoothly and slowly, a small river that will grow into a great one. At Ulm the Danube becomes navigable. At Ulm, too, there are echoes of Descartes. Now the Danube threads its way through rocks towards Sigmaringen.
The fortress of Sigmaringen is still inhabited by descendants of the Hohenzollern- Sigmaringen whose ancestors set out from Nuremberg, riding as far as Brandenburg, and Prussia where they Above right, the Danube at Budapest. View of the left bank of the river showing the dome of the Parliament building and the town of Pest.
In the background, behind the second bridge, can be seen Margaret Island. The first great city through which the Danube flows is Regensburg a city of great beauty especially its centre. It is a city of old churches, venerable patrician houses, old inns that serve fine food and wines.
His name is marked indelibly on the memories of those who survived the great massacre he unleashed on Europe. No, the Danube is not harmless, just as the great current of European history is not harmless. For centuries a deadly whirlpool caused by the wrecks of countless ships which sank after running on to a treacherous reef brought terror to the stretch of the river between Linz and Passau.
A stream of death, a journey to death, a journey to the dark east. The medieval German epic The Song of the Niebelung, which was written near the Danube, evokes journeys in the dawn of Latin western Europe, and sings of the fatal journey to Etzel-Attila, king of the Huns, the husband of Siegfried's widow Kriemhild.
She leads her people to death, the monstrous revenge of a monstrous woman. The Mekong In the clear blue waters The mirror image of the coconut palms From the sea the steady susurration Of waves that rock Like the hammock of my infant days Giang Nam After Linz, the Danube flows through the Wachau, its most romantic stretch. In this land of ancient culture, it passes by ruined castles and sunny slopes covered by vineyards.
It flows by Willendorf, site of the discovery of the "Willendorf Venus", a prehistoric statuette of a mother-goddess venerated for thousands of years throughout Europe and even further east. Strindberg once stayed in this district, and long before him, at the time of the Crusades, Richard the Lionheart was held prisoner in a castle near Krems, a town once bigger than Vienna, which still jealously guards its old centre. On his, way back from the Crusade, Richard was seized at Schwechat, outside Vienna, and placed in the custody of the Austrian Duke of Babenberg.
The bard Blondel sang the praises of his master Richard Cceur-de- Lion, the king of England who spoke 17barely a word of English. That a valiant knight, a subject of dispute between Crusaders when have there not been disputes, quarrels and wars between our fathers and our ancestors?
The Duke of Babenberg handed over the King of England to the Emperor against payment of a heavy ransom. It would have been better for Richard had he remained in the Wachau, drinking good wine and enjoying the Danube sun. English lords offered considerable sums to the Emperor to obtain their king's release.
The Zambezi The quivering waters of the Zambezi [river Will bear on a silvery blanket your name Leading it to the echoing of the sea. Mazisi Kunene Now, for the first time, the Danube traverses open country. This is Moravia, often a battle ground until Napoleonic times. It was here, close to the Danube and to Vienna, that the House of Austria was born on a battlefield. Vienna, the Vindobona of the Romans, lay on the limes or fortified frontier of the Roman Empire which linked the Rhine and the Danube.
And to Rome. Vienna does not lie on the blue Danube of Johann Strauss. Here, the river is dark and most often grey. It becomes the great river of Eastern Europe, enriched by many tributaries the Tisza, the Sava, the Morava, the Jiu, the Olt, the Dambovitsa, the Siret, the Pruth and enters the Black Sea through its delta, an island-studded aquatic jungle.
As I look at the Danube from Vienna, I see Soviet cargo ships sailing upstream one after the other, many of which were built at Linz or Klosterneuburg, near the city. All of a sudden, there appears a hovercraft coming from Budapest. It provides the most rapid means of transport between the two cities.
Then comes a cargo ship from Yugoslavia from Belgrade, the "white city" that was the scene of battles down the centuries, against the Turks, the Hungarians, the Germans, the Austrians, even during two world wars. Much blood has flowed down the Danube, but today the river flows peacefully through Western and Eastern Europe, a link, a living bridge, between the two fragments of our continent. As I write these lines, tourists wave to me in friendship from the deck of their ship bound for the Black Sea.
Friedrich Heer View of the Sulina channel, the only one of the three channels into which the Danube splits at its delta that is navigable. Owing to the large quantity of silt deposited by the River, the delta is extending seawards at a rate of some 30 metres annually.
The goddess who came down to earth by Lokenath Bhattacharya IT is to be acknowledged in all humility that writing about Ganga, the Ganges as others call her, is an impossibility, since much of the river exists more in the imagination of the people who, verily, are her own children, a repetition of the fallen Vasus of the Mahabharata, than in reality.
A river is a she, in Sanskrit as well as in French, and maybe in quite a few other languages also. But nowhere is a river she with such force and presence as in the case of Ganga. Dreams and despair, facts and fiction, creation and devastation, all have been elements in a process which has culminated in the portrayal of her image. As the scriptures describe it, her home is among the stars, where the Path of Vishnu lies, between Ursa Major and the Pole Star. Like her elder spiritual sister Sarasvati, the legendary river now lost in the desert of time, Ganga too becomes a "mother of the Vedas", and is identified with the Word.
She is the pearl of poetry, "engaging herself in grammar, giving pleasure to the ears". And what hold she has on her devotees! Three incidents come to my mind. I can't exactly recall if they all happened during the same journey. The first concerns a one-legged youth, ascetic-looking, standing knee-deep in the icy water of the Bhagirathi, very near the bend in front of the Gangotri temple. Yet the river was anything but motionless, or soundless; its speed had its usual, perpetual ferocity.
In this 19th-century painting she rides a saurian, holding a lotus and a pot of Ganga water. The man, though, was as immobile as a photograph. The greater surprise, however, still awaited us, late in the evening, on the same day. We saw him return to one of the resting houses for the pilgrims where he must have been staying and were told that he was just back from Gomukh, "the cow's mouth", known to be the true source of Ganga, a formidable-looking ice cave at an altitude of over 4, metres and twenty-three kilometres beyond the town of Gangotri.
He had renounced the world, as he himself described, "to pursue the course of Mother Ganga and realize her true form". Moving for a considerable time from the plains towards the source of the river he finally settled down near its icy origins high in the Himalayas and now divides his twelve months of the year between Gangotri and Gomukh. The woman was walking firmly though slowly, occasionally stopping for breath and she was moving in the same direction as I was.
Uttering the habitual greeting "Ganga-mayi ki jai" glory to Mother Ganga I tried to overtake her gently and carefully as the path was uneven and narrow with a steep gorge oh the right pointing to 23the Ganga which was flowing perhaps one hundred and fifty metres below.
The perpetual snowline was still a distance away and we were in the region of scattered birch forests said to be the favourite roaming ground for herds of musk-deer. I told her that Bhaironghat lay in the opposite direction and would mean for her four to five hours walk, that the direction she was going would shortly take her to Chirbasa, the last human habitation of two or three huts along the way, before the path merged in the perpetual snow. With a touch of despair in her eyes and voice which still rings in my ears, she cried out, "Oh my God, what I have done?
How am I going to return now? She has brought me here, she will take me there". Then without a word more she turned and started to walk in the opposite direction. Few rivers anywhere in the world have been elevated to the exalted position Ganga occupies in the vast hymn literature of the Hindus. She cleanses, purifies; sanctifies. When a Hindu, while bathing, invokes the seven celestial streams from the solar orb "Make your abode in this water, oh Ganga, oh Yamuna, oh Godavari, oh Saravasti, oh Narmada, Sindhu, Kaveri" , he gives preference to Ganga among all the other ones.
The prayers of A flotilla of fishing boats at Nimtita in West Bengal. Elephants are associated with rainfall and abundant crops. In Hinduism the elephant-headed god Ganesh is a remover of obstacles and a symbol of prosperity.
The river was at flood, stage and the boat made slow time upstream, yet all time on the river is slow time. Schedules have to be revised every day, always backward. Leisure is enforced as the scenery creeps by, what scenery there is, which isn't much, not on the lower river.
Because of the levees, which elevate the stream above the flood plain, there is literally no shore line by which to gain perspective, no visible habitation of men. Early in the nineteenth century, one mad projector suggested that the meanders be bisected the entire length of the river by means of two canals, with the intention of improving navigation and reducing floods. Levees and wingdams act toward the same desired end, but such is the force of the river that all engineering feats are never more than compromises with short-range effectiveness.
Its natural tendency to change course will eventually win out and the great city will be left high and boggy. Ironically and much associated with the great river is ironical , the man who is credited with discovering the Mississippi, De Soto, regarded it as a barrier to his westward search for the fabled Indian cities of gold.
It was La Salle, a century later, for whom the Mississippi first assumed a promising shape: Joined to the St. Lawrence by a network of lakes and lesser rivers, it would extend the French empire in North America all the way to the Gulf. It is difficult to read the story of La Salle as told by Francis Parkman without thinking of the story of Kurtz as told by Conrad, for both stories are about the madness that quest for empire engenders. Acheh Sumatra and makes Hasan di Tiro's struggte every Muslim's struggle.
Most o f those mentioned i n The Price of Freedom are already dead, martyred to our cause a t the hands of the b a r b a r i c Javanese Indonesian c o l o n i a l i s t s. I t was the Javanese Indonesian c o l o n i a l i s t s who used violence t o suppress us.
Each day demonstrates the growing s t r e n g t h of our independence movement. The enemy "body counts" have meant nothing i n the people"s march t o v i c t o r y. I t i s axiomatic t h a t no indepen- dence movement can be stopped by m i l i t a r y means. The h i s t o r i c a l process o f independence of peoples and the e r a d i c a t i o n of c o l o n i a l - isra cannot be stopped by raere Javamen - even i f they are backed by Western democracies, as i t were.
That merely gives a bad name f o r the Western democracies. In the Javanese Indonesian regime had announced the "death" of Tengku Hasan d i T i r o o f f i c i a l l y i n the b a t t l e f i e l d i n Acheh Sumatra. The s t o r i e s have been confirmed and denied as the mystery t h i c k e n s. We s h a l l not comment on these speculations. Zentgraaff had written: "Too much bloed of the d i T i r o family has been s p i l l e d.
T h e r e was no Achehnese family who had exercised so much influence on the war between Holland and Acheh l i k e the d i T i r o family, and there was none who had sustained the struggle to the b i t t e r end. They were the objectives of a series of m i l i t a r y movements and warfare which belong to the most i n t e r e s t i n g parts of the h i s t o r y of t h i s war that can provide materials for heroic e p i c.
Zentgraaff, Atjeh, Schmidt, had written: "From the beginning of the war between Holland and Acheh the members of the family of the Tengku d i T i r o played the greatest r o l e and the most important on the Achehnese s i d e. For them and their men, there were no other p o s s i b i l i t i e s acceptable than to win t h i s war or to die heroes deaths. Victory was c l e a r l y impossi- ble, and un-obtainable. And yet, despite everything, they stood fast and fought l i k e heroes.
Despite the odds against him, a Teng- ku d i T i r o recognized no other p o s s i b i l i t y for him except death. It demonstrates also the s t a b i l i t y of our p o l i t i c a l leadership that deeply rooted i n our history that i s unique i n the annals of na1:ions. Husaini M. Hasan, M. That i s my l i f e mission. A c q u i s i t i o n of wealth and power has never been my goal i n l i f e because I have both i n my country.
Nor do I want t o do i t be- cause I look to i t as an achievement or a career: I have to do i t as a duty, an o b l i g a t i o n put on my shoulders by my ancestors on account of future generations, a duty received and a debt that must be paid because of the past and the future of my people. I have been brought up by my family to think so, and I have seen confirmation and expectation from my people to be so.
For I have been born to the d i T i r o family of Acheh, Sumatra, the family that had ruled my country and had provided leadership to i t through war and peace for so many generations and for centuries i n the long h i s t o r y of our country.
Many national heroes of Acheh therefore have come from my bloodline. Because of t h i s long h i s t o r y , my people have come to expect their leaders to come from the family. As i t was with my ancestors i n the past, i t i s s t i l l so with my generation now as I expect t o be so with the future generations. That i s I have been made to f e e l what my family and my people expected from me.
To get to the point quickly and to confine the matter to my personal h i s t o r y , may I t e i l you that since I can remember, my hand i s always kissed by my people - ne- ver shaken - even when I was a l i t t l e boy. I t e i l t h i s not f o r self-indulgence but to explain my s e l f - l e s s actions, t o give you a case h i s t o r y of my early experience and upbringing which are the genesis of my future actions that w i l l explain what I do and why I do i t. There were times i n my l i f e when I envied t o be l i k e o- ther boys, to be able to run around without being bothered by a t - tention - which unfortunately I had never succeeded.
I remembered once I came t o complain to my mother t e a r f u l l y why the people d i d not leave me alone because I was very annoyed that when I walked to school, everybody I met along the road, e s p e c i a l l y old people, would stand up, i f they were s i t t i n g , or would step down i f they were on b i c y c l e s , t o rush to k i s s my hand.
Zentgraaff had written: "The family of the Tengku d i T i r o i s the h o l i e s t family that Acheh has ever recognized. Why not everybody j u s t leave me alone. My mother explained to me that the people d i d not mean to bother me, but to honor me, and to demonstrate t h e i r love and respect t o us.
That l i t t l e speech of h i s made me so embarrassed w i t h my school mates a t the time but I have never forgotten the i n c i d e n t or the message. C l e a r l y my peo- ple had chipped-in i n the endeavor t o give me a proper education. I t i s important to mention that the people do not honor me and my f a m i l y because they are a f r a i d of us or because they want to curry favor w i t h us.
We have no m i l i t a r y power then because the country was already under Dutch c o l o n i a l occupation. I would consider myself t o be delinquent of my duty i f I d i d not do i t. In f a c t , I have kept postponing a c t i o n on the matter f o r long enough t h a t I myself have become suspect i n my own eyes as probably have no courage to a c t upon t h i s urgent matter. The break between the present and the f u - t u r e i s simply too g l a r i n g t o contemplate.
I was lucky t h a t a few days before my departure, I stumbled over Nietzsche's work, Thll8 Spoke Zarathustra, while browsing i n a book store on F i f t h Avenue New York. When I opened the book, i t was r i g h t on the chapter heading: "The Wanderer". And whatever may yet come to me as destiny and experience w i l l include some wandering and mountain climbing: i n the end one experiences only oneself.
The time i s gone when mere accidents could s t i l l happen to me; and what could s t i l l come to me now that was not mine already? What returns, what f i n a l l y comes home to me, i s my own s e l f and what of myself has long been i n strange lands and scattered among a l l things and accidents.
And one further thing I know: I stand before my f i n a l peak now and before that which has been saved up for me the longest. Alas, now I must face my hardest path! But whoever i s of my kind cannot escape such an hour - the hour which says to him:"Only now are you going your way to greatnessl Peak and abyss - they are now joined together. Your own foot has effaced the path behind you, and over i t there i s written: i m p o s s i b i l i t y.
On your own head and away over your own heart! Now what was gentlest i n you must s t i l l become the hardest. He who has always spared himself much w i l l i n the end become s i c k l y of so much consideration. Praised be to what hardensl I do not p r a i s e the land where butter and honey flow. But you wanted to see the ground and background of a l l things; hence you must climb over yourself - upward, up u n t i l even your stars are under you! We11, I am ready. Now my ultimate loneliness has begun.
Alas, t h i s preg- nant nocturnal dismay! A l a s , destiny and sea! To you I must now go down! Before my highest mountain I stand and before my longest wandering;to that end I must f i r s t go down deeper than ever I descended - deeper i n t o pain than ever I descended,down i n t o i t s blackest f l o o d. Thus my destiny wants i t. Well, I am ready. You I advise not to peace, but to v i c t o r y.
Suddenly I can see everything c l e a r e r. I f e i t every word was addressed to me. I couldnot have described my own f e e l i n g more accurately. My time has come. I couldnot walk away from i t. Since then I have not parted company with Nietzsche. Strange that a l l these times I spent a t various u n i v e r s i t i e s I should have missed understanding r e a l Nietzsche.
I am sure I have read about him i n so many p o l i t i c a l theory and p o l i t i c a l philosophy courses that I have gone through - but must have been through i n terpretations and conclusions of second rate minds. Now a l l my self-doubts are swept away. I have had a modicum of success i n the business world because I had entree to the highest business and governmental c i r c l e s i n many countries: the United States, Europe, Middle East,Africa and not l e a s t Southeast Asia, except "Indonesia" of course, which I avoided.
As a r e s u l t , I have close business r e l a t i o n s h i p with top 50 US corporations i n the f i e l d s of petrochemicals, shipping, construction, a v i a t i o n , manufacturing and food processing indus- t r i e s. My own company had join-venture agreements with many of them which I affected, and myself r e t a i n a status of consultant to some of them.
As chairman of consortia of these corporations I had led many American corporate delegations to negotiate large scale business transactions i n many countries i n the Middle East, Europe and A s i a. I t was on my v i s i t to Riyad as the head of one of these consortia that I was received, i n , by His Majesty King F e i s a l. I presented to King F e i s a l two g i f t s : h i s p o r t r a i t done by a famous a r t i s t with the background of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d Sa- udi Arabia, and an album of postage stamps with the picture of my great grandfather, Al-Malik Tengku Tjhik d i T i r o , to remind him that although I came at the head of an American consortium I was s t i l l an Achehnese Sumatran, and never an "indonesian".
And there were many such business missions that I led t o other countries. I had enjoyed my business a c t i v i t i e s , and appreciated the com- pany of my business colleagues, some of them men of great culture and e r u d i t i o n. But I never mixed my business with my p o l i t i c s. So very few of them knew what I had i n mind to do i n Acheh Sumatra. I d i d not s o l i c i t anybody else's advice, sympathy, or support.
As the aeroplane races the sun to the West I look down to what has become my f a m i l i a r stamping ground on t h i s long stretch of North America. This ground i s so familiar t o me. I used to f l y from New York to Michigan i n my company's a f f i l i a t e private j e t to inspect the c a t t l e farms and the meat processing plant there. For a l l intents and purposes t h i s may be my l a s t time. Only a miracle can change that.
In a few hours I can see the snow-covered peak of Mount R a i - n i e r. I have my own private meaning of that peak. I almost got k i l l e d there a year ago or so. That peak has become a milestone i n my l i f e , not because I almost got k i l l e d there, but because of the profound regret that I had at that time there about the p r o b a b i l i t y of dying before doing what I have t o do i n Acheh.
I do not care much i f I died but I care very much i f I died before doing what I considered to be the purpose of my l i f e. I was sure that my f r i e n d DC, the president of the biggest airplane company i n the world, who had made such a gracious ges- ture t o i n s i s t on f l y i n g me by himself with h i s own private j e t to go t o inspect a desert s t a t i o n i n Oregon,did not know what was on my mind when we were on the South side of the peak of Mount Rainier, on the same height, when suddenly h i s engines went dead.
There were four of us i n the four-seater j e t : DC and me i n the front seats, and two colleagues, VDL and MP, i n the back seats, both were such admirable characters t o be with. DC was a former dare-devil t e s t p i l o t. So there was no lack of courage on his p a r t.
He calmly t r i e d to get the engines s t a r t but nothing happened. DC managed to bring the plane down hovering over that d i r t f i e l d and landed. A f t e r i t touched down the plane couldnot move one inch, even when the four of us t r i e d to push i t. That was the day I made my dead- l i n e : I must return to Acheh to do my duty not l a t e r than today J September 4, , my birthday: the Because o f the incident, we missed a huge banquet a t a f a s h i o - nable hotel i n Seattle that had been prepared i n my honor.
We had to send i n for a s p e c i a l plane to piek us up toroorrow, and we had to stay for the night a t a desert i n n. You see, the b i g company today i s doing everything where there i s bu- siness t o make money. The name of the companies nowadays are no longer r e l e v a n t to what they are doing.
My wife had agreed t o my going because she r e a l i z e d how strongly I f e i t about i t. My wife i s the one who suffered the most. Another matter that seared my heart i s t h a t I had to leave my only son, Karim, who i s only s i x years o l d.
This i s h u r t i n g somebody who i s dearest and h e l p l e s s and completely dependent on you and cannot even p r o t e s t! I acted against a l l my best emotions. Karim has the g i f t of goodlook t h a t he was admired so much every- where he went. We were rather proud of him. When he was aboufc four or f i v e he had shown a very d e f i n i t e " i n charge" character. I d i s - t i n c t l y remembered when we were having a summer vacation i n Cape Cod he forbade h i s father going t o swim i n the sea when he saw the waves were bigger than u s u a l.
I knew I had to do something, but before I could make up my mind about what t o do, I heard a whis- t l e being blown from somewhere i n the s t o r e , and the boys scrambled out of the shop i n a hurry. When I turned my head t o the corner of the store from where the w h i s t l e sound came from, I saw Karim stand- ing s t i f f l y with the w h i s t l e i n h i s hand. He must havebeen f i v e years old a t the time. The o l d shop-owner thanked him profusedly.
The boys could have beaten him up and we would have gotten involved i n some f r a c a s. But, before I made up my mind about what to do, my son had acted on h i s own, and d i d the r i g h t t h i n g although a t -considerahle personal r i s k. He was always sought a f t e r and hugged by diplomats attending the s e r v i c e s. When walking with my son on F i f t h Avenue we always got f o l l o w i n g , a group of men and women who came t o t a l k t o Karim and to touch him.
When walking with my son I always f e i t l i k e e s c o r t i n g somebody very impor- tant because the a t t e n t i o n passersby paid to him. One day I l e f t my son f o r a moment i n the lobby of Hotel Plaza t o make a telephone c a l l. The Senator came to me to give compliments about Karim. He s a i d : " I had t o come t o shake the hand of your son because he looks so handsome L" So much for reminis- cence of a sad f a t h e r.
T h e weather has been rough i n the Andaman Sea f o r the l a s t two weeks as the monsoon season i s due t o begin, but we are lucky to have a break of a f a i r weather j u s t at the beginning of t h a t day. As we begin s a i l i n g Southward we have a spectacular view of the mountain ranges and the green h i l l y i s l a n d s emerging from the sea.
When the sky i s cloudy, the sea water here looked emerald green, and when the sky i s b l u e , the water i s a l s o blue. The view i s breath- t a k i n g l y dramatic and peaceful. I t i s the calm before the storm. The purpose of my voyage has nothing t o do with my surroundings. Many thoughts cross my mind. I thought of Ceasar"s landing i n Spain, i n L e r i d a , where he conquered the country i n 40 days.
But Ceasar had a l e g i o n with him. I have nothing. I come back alone - un-armed. I have no instrument of power. I face the Javanese Indonesian c o l o n i a l i s t troops, h a l f - a - m i l l i o n men strong, equipped with most modern weapons, experienced i n g u e r i l l a - warfare, and had j u s t massacred 2 - m i l l i o n people who dared t o oppose i t. Yes, here I come.
I found none. I must do what I have t o do. L e t them come. However, i t was n o t Muhamnad Daud who comes b u t h i s deputy. I then step down i n t o that small boat, and my s u i t case i s transfered to i t. The captain o f my guards o f f e r s to accompanyme to go on shore t o assure my safety. I appreciate h i s gesture, but I t e i l him i t i s not neeessary.
There we part company and say good- bye to one another. The captain said to me as we parted:"Your Highness, I can see that your people love you! There a group of a dozen men, headed by M. Daud Husin, has been waiting to escort me t o the moun- t a i n region, that very night - my f i r s t night i n my homeland a f t e r being i n e x i l e for 25 years i n the United States. I am i n - vited to come t o a small and secluded hut on a f i s h pound where I have my dinner together with the men.
At about midnight we proceed to march to the mountain f o - r e s t of Panton Keng, about s i x hours walking distance from the sea shore. We have to walk i n the dark q u i e t l y without using f l a s h l i g h t to avoid detection by the Javanese Indonesian agents. We decided to begin the march after midnight i n order to avoid meeting people on the road.
Inspite of a l l that precaution, however, we s t i l l encoun- ter people on the road, and our midnight march was observed by some people. A l - though t i r e d , I have a sensational f e e l i n g being able to walk again on my own land, the land of my b i r t h , a f t e r 25 years un-able t o s e t my foot on it,because the Javanese occupiers of my country would not allow me to return.
I can never consent t o asking f o r e i g n e r s ' per- mission for me to come back to my own land. A f t e r a r e s t of one-half hour, we proceed again toward the South, the mountain region. We be- gin climbing h i l l s and descending them. By the time of day break we s t i l l have not reach our destination. This i s a t r a d i t i o n a l g u e r i l l a hide-out, both during the war against the Dutch and during the l a s t resistance against the Javanese Indo- nesians.
One cannot see through within 15 meters, and there are many small brooks c r i s s - c r o s s i n g the f o r e s t s. Everyone i s so exhausted and i n need to l i e down. So the men begin to cut some trees to clear the ground j u s t enough to lay a mat for me to l i e down.
In no time I f a l l asleep. For the f i r s t time on my own homeland i n twenty-five years. While I was asleep the men cut the trees to make clearance to es- t a b l i s h our f i r s t camp. For the roofs and walls they used black or green heavy and thick p l a s t i c tissues which come very handy. In the old time our fathers had to work several days just to make roofs for t h e i r g u e r i l l a camps out of cut grass.
In two days we have f u n c t i o n a l houses i n the midst of the f o r e s t s complete with running water! In that sense i t i s very safe. T h i s i s then my f i r s t headquarters and the first patch of Achehnese liberated t e r r i t o r y! I stayed here from November 1, to November 29, I found the process of adjustment came naturally, although occasionally the memory of my o l d world came i n strong such as when I heard the sound of Europe-bound i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r l i n e s f l y i n g high overhead reminded me of the amenities of the l i f e i n the f i r s t c l a s s cabin that I used to partake.
But soon a l l that i s forgotten, replaced by the true joy of revolutionary f u l f i l m e n t , true joy of discovering oneself f u l f i l - l i n g a great and sacred task, surrounded by the comrades-in-arms who give t h e i r a l l for the great and h i s t o r i e destiny of our people. There are plenty of laughter and even tears of joy may be more often than tears of sorrow.
When Dr. Muchtar Hasbi came to the camp to v i - s i t me f o r the f i r s t time during the month of November, he wept un- ashamedly l i k e a l i t t l e boy for hours. I t was the shock of recogni- t i o n. The l a s t time he saw me was i n my luxurious residence abroad. Muchtar was a great character, an irreplaceable son of the people of Acheh, a great hero, second to none,of whom I w i l l write more l a t e r.
Now to work. The f i r s t order of thing i s to make the Achehnese opinion leaders understand i n what p o l i t i c a l process our people and our country are involved: we are i n the process of being swallowed by Javanese c o l o - n i a l i s t s and being put to death as a nation,so that the Javanese can i n h e r i t our land. We s h a l l not survive as a people much longer unless we r e s i s t and mobilize now.
The way to our national s a l v a t i o n i s the recreation of Achehnese h i s t o r i e consciousness. What we have to do now i s to make our people study these books. Thus the paper works had already been done by me during my long e x i l e i n the United States. The only thing they have to do now i s read!
This approach succeeds l i k e wild f i r e. We reprinted th-2 book that I had written to revive Achehnese patriotism i n our g u e r i l l a p r i n t - ing shops and d i s t r i b u t e d the books free of charge to the people. Durian trees take very long time to bear f r u i t s. Pawang i s Achehnese f o r expert of mountains and f o r e s t s.
That i s one of the great mysteries of Achehnese Sumatran f o r e s t s. Pawang Baka i s a man with very few words. During the Acheh- nese armed r e s i s t a n c e against the Javanese Indonesian regime i n the s, Pawang Baka was one among hundreds of people who had been l i n e up by the Javanese s o l d i e r s and machine-gunned to death en mass i n f r o n t of a mass grave.
Although bathed with others"bloed, he l u c k i l y escaped death and walked out of the mass grave a t n i g h t f a l l. The order of the march i a as f o l l o w : f i r s t the Pawang party the guides , then the advanced s e c u r i t y guards, then my party, then the rear guards.
This i s the f i r s t long march through the f o r e s t t h a t we have taken since my return. One does not go here f o r pleasure. I t was o n Thursday, December 2, Only the occasional b l i n k s of a hunter's f l a s h - l i g h t on someone's head gave occasional l i g h t. But the stamina of my men was to be admired. No one complaint although everyone i s carrying heavy loads over h i s head.
I was so exhausted - although carrying nothing - and f e i l asleep r i g h t away and I d i d not care anymore where I was. Only tomorrow at day break I know where we were. I t was a place impossible to f i n d even during the day time. The name of the place i s the Tjokkan H i l l. I t was also an old h i s t o r i e g u e r i l l a camping ground with the reputation of having never been discovered by the enemy, Dutch or Javanese Indonesians, u n t i l t h i s day. My uncle once l i v e d there.
The camp was established near the Southern p r e c i p i c e of the high h i l l but not v i s i b l e from any d i - r e c t i o n s because i t was protected by the cone-shaped rock formation of the ground a l l around. In the middle of the camping ground there runs a b e a u t i f u l winding spring passing though several miniature w a t e r f a l l s before f i n a l l y f a l l i n g at the height of meters down- h i l l and then disappeared i n the ground.
Thus, t h i s i s a spring wi- thout a mouth - a very rare occurrence. The "counter-insurgency" ex- perts would usually s t a r t t h e i r search f o r a possible g u e r i l l a hide- outs by following through every mouth of the spring that can e a s i l y be spotted along the bigger r i v e r s. I t turned out to be the place where I stayed the lon- gest and from where I would make the Declaration of Independence of Acheh Sumatra, on December 4, The Dutch had, therefore, counted December 4, , as the day of the ending of the Achehnese State as a Sovereign e n t i - ty, and the day of the Dutch f i n a l " v i c t o r y " over the Kingdom of A- cheh Sumatra, as has been asserted by Colonel H.
Schmidt,theDutch commander who led the attack a t Alue Bhot. However,that was not true at a l l because the Achehnese war of resistance d i d not end with the f a l l of Tengku Tjhik Maat d i T i r o a t the B a t t l e of Alue Bhot since the struggle was continued by the survivors of The State of A- cheh Sumatra had never surrendered to Holland!
The struggle continu- es. The f l a g of Acheh w i l l always be flown at h a l f - s t a f f to honor the memory of the heroic young l a s t Achehnese Head of State, Tengku Tjhik Maat d i T i r o. But henceforth, u n t i l the end of time, that f l a g of Acheh w i l l be raised again the next day, on December 4, i n the most solemn and dramatic way to s i g n i f y the Renaissance and the con- t i n u i t y of the people of Acheh Sumatra and the State of Acheh Suma- t r a forever and ever.
Tengku Tjhik Maat d i T i r o was my uncle. Holland was the f i r s t f o r e i g n power to attempt to c o l o n i z e us when i t declared war against the Sovereign State of Acheh, on March 26, , and on the same day invaded our t e r r i t o r y , aided by Java - nese mercenaries. The aftermath of t h i s invasion was duly recorded on the f r o n t pages of contemporary newspapers a l l over the world.
The London Times, on A p r i l 22, , wrote:"A remarkable i n c i d e n t i r modern c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y i s reported from the East Indian Archipelagc A considerable force of Europeans has been defeated and held i r check by the Army of a native State Their enemy i s not only defeat- ed, but compelled to withdraw. The attack was repulsed with great slaughter. I t appears, indeed, to have been l i t e r a l l y deciraated.
President Ulysses S. B u t , c o l o n i a l - ism, e i t h e r by w h i t e , Dutch, Europeans, or by brown, Javanese Asians i s not acceptable to the people of Acheh Sumatra. But "Indonesia" was a fraud:a cloak t o cover up Javanese c o - l o n i a l i s m. Since the world begun,there never was a people, much l e s s a n a t i o n , i n our p a r t of the world by t h a t name.
Right cannot o r i g i n a t e from wrong! From now on we intend to be the masters i n our own house: the only way l i f e i s worth l i v i n g ; t o make our own laws: as we see f i t ; to become the gu- arantor of our own freedom and independence: for which we are capa- b l e ; to become equal w i t h a l l the peoples of the world: as our f o r e - father s had always been.
In short, to become sovereign i n our own fatherland! Our land i s endowed by the Almighty with plenty and bounty. We intend to be a worthy c o n t r i b u t o r to human welfare the world over. We expect r e c o g n i t i o n from decent members of the commuriity of nations. We extend the hands of f r i e n d s h i p to a l l peoples and to a l l governments from the four corners of the earth.
This i s the best way to recreate Achehnese group - consciousness and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i c a l awareness for a people w i t h a unique past such as ours. That was what happened to the Achehnese generation of Therefore, we had l o s t the opportunity to regain the independence that was r i g h t l y ours. I t i s instead t o serve notice of i t s commencement. When our people have properly grasped the meaning and purposes of our D e c l a r a t i o n of Independence, then no Javanese c o l o n i a l i s t regime can prevent them from g a i n i n g that independence.
That i s why we had followed through the p o l i c y we d although many of our own people were confused t the beginning be a re they q u i t e understand our strategy. Emissar: a r r i v e d from a l l regions of Acheh Sumatra, days and nights,even f] outside Sumatra such as from the Celebes, and from Jakarta - t l despicable place. Enemy atterapts t o i n f i l t r a t e our ranks bei to be made i n earnest.
By now a l l the people i n T i r o Region knew tl I was back, i n the mountains somewhere, and they are percent ] side me with whatever they have. The machine w i l l produce pamphlets, booklets, d i r e c t i v t and poetry, a l l i n Achehnese language, f o r free d i s t r i b u t i o n for 1 people a l l over the country.
Tengku Sjamaun i s our strongman i n East Acheh. A man of strong conviction, courteous but firm. He had helped the escape of a group of young Achehnese doc- tors and engineers from Medan to the liberated t e r r i t o r y , among them Dr. Muchtar Hasbi, M. Zubir Mah- mud, M. Z a i n i Abdullah, M. Teuku Asnawi A l i , Mr. Amir Ishak, and others. These young men are going to play important r o l e i n the struggle later on.
Soon after he returned to h i s province however, Tengku Sjamaun was murdered by the Javanese Indonesian troops at h i s home, without any l e g a l process whatsoever, shot dead i n front of h i s wife. I received the news with profound sadness. From that moment on I know that the Javanese c o l o n i a l i s t s have inaugurat- ed the p o l i c y to murder every member of the NLFAS l i k e they had mas- sacred m i l l i o n s of innocent farmers and workers a decade ago.
This i s s i g n i f i c a n t because up to that moment we have not entered i n t o an armed struggle. Tengku Sjamaun was not even armed. But when the Java nese Indonesian c o l o n i a l i s t s came to h i s home to shoot him, he of- fered a courageous symbolic resistance with a sword that was hanged to decorate the wall of h i s verandah. He faced h i s death bravely. From that day on I knew that our struggle w i l l be with a merciless enemy. Muchtar Hasbi. By now there are so much going and coming a t my headquarters in Tjokkan H i l l.
There are so many things that I have to do, a l l at the same time, and there was never enough time for doing everything. The most time-consuming a c t i v i t i e s are receiving emissaries now coming from a l l over the country and t a l k i n g t o them,enlighten them about the aims of our movement and why we have to do i t. In a sense, the a c t i v i t i e s of the NLFAS a t t h i s stage are purely educational, and we have to go to the forests f o r protection from Javanese lynching, i n order to be able to give proper Achehnese edu- c a t i o n to our people with a view t o our s u r v i v a l as a national, po- l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l e n t i t y.
But the Javanese Indo- nesian c o l o n i a l i s t s have v i o l a t e d each one of these r i g h t s t o the minutest d e t a i l s : they are t r e a t i n g us as a proscribed group of human beings, without r i g h t to our homeland,without r i g h t t o use our own language, without r i g h t to govern ourselves,ney without r i g h t t o c a l l ourselves with our own names.
And t h i s happens a t the end of t h i s 20th centuryl What else could I do? To go back to the c i t y , l i k e everybo- dy and then speaks the truth? What I have done i s the only thing l e f t that I can d o , i f I do not vant to capitulate to the invaders of my country. What I have done i s the only thing l e f t to do i f I wanted to redeem the past and to j u s t i f y the future of my people.
Now I can die with c l e a r conscience when my time t o d i e comes, when- ever i t pleases my God. I have passed the torch safely to the new A- chehnese generation who w i l l carry on the work that I have started to an i n e v i t a b l e v i c t o r y , for I am convinced more than ever before that my people have the capacity to do so. We have not been born to be. I t i s foolhardy f o r the Javanese to think that they can colonize us Achehnese!
Never, never, never! They have got- ten at the present s i t u a t i o n purely due to a set of e x t e r n a l l y i n - duced circumstances a t the end of World War I I , circumstances that w i l l not be maintainable i n the future! Everyone i s up, awakens by the Azan -the Muslims'call to prayer - which i s also a cato-victory - chanted by the most melodious voice i n the camp.
I t contains the important articles of the Islamic f a i t h , i n c l u d i n g acknowledgement of the greatness of God A l l a h , of the Prophethood of Muhammad, of the necessary determination t o be v i c t o r i o u s : i t l i t e - r a l l y says, "Let us go t o prayJ" and "Let us go t o v i c t o - r y! The l a s t sentence of the morning Azan says:"To pray i s b e t t e r than to sleep! Everyone i s already washed, dressed, and standing i n l i n e to pray.
The leader i s always the one who should lead the prayer. This i s a very great measure of the popular c o n t r o l of p o l i t i c a l leadership. In the present case I am the one who stand as the Imam, the leader, by appointment of the people. By the way there was a reminder from the Prophet Muhammad that when you are a t war, when one group i s p r a y i n g , the other group must be watching f o r the enemy. I belonged among those who have given themselves to Him.
You alone we worship, and to You alone we pray f o r help. The path of those whom you have favored not of those who have incurred Your wrath. Nor of those who have gone astray. We beseech Your f o r - giveness, and toward You we are coming. The Islamic prayers must have been designed t o f u i f i l the need of a warrior t o keep the morale of h i s followers from flopping.
Was not the Prophet Muhammad was forced to be a warrior, i n self-defence, during the e a r l y period of Islam? The Achehnese have been branded that for so long, almost became a second name,for daring to oppose Dutch c o l o n i a l - ism which presumably opposed only by "fanatics"and not by any reasonable people.
I t i s a point of great e t i - quette i n Acheh that the most important one presents i s the one who should get the honor to be the leader ofthe prayer. I resented and agonized over t h i s s i t u a t i o n very much when I was a boy. I would f i n d a l l sorts of excuses not t o go to the mosque on Fridays because I would have to d e l i v e r the formal speech.
I f I went to a mosque no one e l s e would want to do i t i f I were present,and no amount of my encouragement would make anyone take the honor from me. And what has a boy of 14 or 15 so much to say to a l l grey eminences present? What an agony. But I survived a l l that boyhood, and I must say the experience d i d me w e l l. I t made my mind a l e r t and my tongue exercised. As a minimum - i n order not to sound stupid - I had trained myself to be able to say something g r a c e f u l l y on a l l occasions, when a l l my hope f o r the best, that i s to be able to dodge the occasion f a i l e d me.
Now that I have something to say, and my people are eager to give their ears to me - I f e e l very lucky. Afternoon meal. I usually take i t together with s t a f f s and guests. Afternoon meals are more sumptuous than breakfasts. By that time new foods had arrived from the country. Women f o l k s made a l l sorts of cakes and special treats f o r us and they sent them to the mountains.
Works resumed. Usually t h i s time i s reserved f o r short time v i s i t o r s , people who came for the day and must return to t h e i r places on the same day. Usually these are people from T i r o Region or P i d i e Province. They had made appointment many days i n advance with my security c h i e f. For security reasons I received them i n an advanced post, way below a t the foot of Tjokkan Hill,where there i s a large guard post.
This means more works f o r me. And I have to climb back up h i l l l a - ter on f o r twice that much time because i t i s always hard- er t o climb up than to descend down. I f the enemy captured any of my v i s i t o r s and would force them to disclose the l o - cation of my headquarters, the enemy cannot take advantage of them.
Late afternoon or pre-sunset prayer, with the v i s i t o r s. My people l i k e to have the opportunity to stand behind me for praying together with me. It makes my people more emotionally determined t o be l o y a l t o one another and to our sacred cause. Praying together has the e f f e c t to sublimate our r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l and emotional senses for a determined action. They knew I had to leave my wife and son todo t h i s.
Even i n Acheh I l i v e d i n what might seem t o them great luxury. A l l c r i e d when they saw me, and wept when they kissed my hand t o say goodbye. A l l promised t o give t h e i r l i v e s and everything they have,men and women a l i k e.
Now I have t o climb back t o my «residence» f o r two hours. The sunset prayer. I t was a t such a time that I discovered hidden t a l e n t s. There are some very sharp minds among them. There are those who have undergone complete personality change since j o i n i n g me i n the mountains, and have become r e a l leaders of men, i n t h e i r own r i g h t s. There are those who, only 3 months ago were i l l i t e r a t e s , now have been able t o read and write Achehnese poetry and can explain the com- p l i c a t e d idea of c r i s i s o f national i d e n t i t y and how t o cure i t , i n the simplest terms that can be better under- stood by the people than my own explanation.
Usually t h i s session i s prolonged u n t i l 9 PM when the time f o r evening prayer a r r i v e d. In between refreshments are served. Evening prayer. After that I would return t o my quarters and share some thoughts with fellow leaders. With the improving s e c u r i t y s i t u a t i o n we decide t o move down h i l l to Alue Spring B i l i Camp, on the bank of the T i r o River, to make i t easier to communicate with the countryside and t o ease the burden of the l o g i s t i c and supply people who had a very hard time t o carry the supplies to the top of the Tjokkan H i l l , involving s c a l i n g the height.
And t h i s time he brought Dr. Hu- s a i n i Hasan with him, who i s going t o stay with me. We made some pho- tographs t o commemorate Dr. Muchtar's v i s i t. I t turned out to be the only photographs we have of him and me together with some elements of the troops - photographs that l a t e r on t o become famous because they f i n d t h e i r ways t o be published i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l newspapers and magazines a l l over the world.
Husaini, who i s i n h i s e a r l y 30s, looking very f a i r , healthy and heavy s e t , w i l l undergo such a change of physical appearance i n the months and years o f s u f f e r i n g ahead - that occurred to a l l o f us - but only observable at the instance of a colleague. I t must have been another remarkable Chinese contribution to g u e r i l l a s everywhere. Husaini i s God-sent to me. I have never met Husaini before, nor d i d I know anything about him, except what Tengku Hasbi, the f a - ther of Dr.
Muchtar had reported t o me. Ee had very high opinion of Husaini, whose wealthy businessman father was shot and k i l l e d by the Javanese s o l d i e r s i n a senseless murder during the s Achehnese r e v o l t against Javanese Indonesian occupation. Spineless persons would submit even to the murde- r e r s of t h e i r fathers and mothers! Husaini i s a man of few words. He knows when to l i s t e n , and when to speak. His s u r p r i - singly un-cluttered mind - an a n t i t h e s i s of mine that i s already clogged - can think very straight,unbends by emotions or danger when making d i f f i c u l t choices of national p o l i c y.
I always have to agonize i n reaching what f i n a l l y I considered a correct decision,considering a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s even obscure a l t e r n a t i v e s. Usually a f t e r I reached my own conclusion - quite laboriously -I would ask Husaini's opinion without t e l l i n g him what I have decided. He would shoot s t r a i g h t as an arrow at the b u l i ' s eye with the simplest of reasons, i n a few words that are most l o g i c a l , that I had not thought of, and reached the same conclusion.
So Husaini has become my fellow c r e a t o r s. He i s among few men around me in the f o r e s t s who can appreciate my own agony and heartbreak that I had gone through to f u l f i l t h i s h i s t o r i e destiny. The others are Dr. Muchtar Hasbi, Dr.
Zubir Mahmud, and Dr. This kind of heroic gesture i s e n t i r e l y beyond the understanding and comprehension of "Indonesians" - Javanese subjects - such as one Rosihan Anwar a Minangkabau? For us, Achehnese, t h i s i s a re-affirmation of our character, a wit- ness to our blood, to the difference between us and the r e s t of them as witness by the difference of our h i s t o r y and t h e i r s! They are w i l l i n g to l i v e as Javanese subjects and even invented excuses to j u s t i f y Javanese slavery over themselves.
Many apologists of the so- c a l l e d "Indonesian nation" came from Minangkabau We Achehnese can never l i v e as anybody's subjects. Muchtar H a s b i But as we know the man's greatness i s not deter- mined by h i s stature but by his head and heart.
A l l great m i l i t a r y leaders i n h i s t o r y , from Alexander the Great to Ceasar and Napo- leon were men of short and small p h y s i c a l stature that had i n s p i r e d the saying " a l l good things come i n small packages". Daud Husin someone nicknamed him "Mr. Before the beginning of our Revolution for the independence of Acheh Sumatra, M. Daud Husin was a shrimp merchant from the f i s h i n g v i l l a g e of Pasi Lhok i n the Province of P i d i e of Acheh.
He was the leader of h i s v i l l a g e community of about inhabitants and under h i s leadership they had successfully staged a protest demon- s t r a t i o n against the l o c a l Javanese government's corrupt o f f i c i a l s that resulted i n the men's dismissals and the recovery of m i l l i o n s of rupiah - the Javanese currency - corrupted by these men.
A man of exceptional strength of w i l l and nerves, and a b i l i t y to grasp complex propositions, M. Daud Husin has made himself i n bare three months an expert i n p o l i t i c a l theory of national l i b e r a t i o n s , of International Law, of Achehnese h i s t o r y , o f m i l i t a r y strategy, and on the basis of h i s experience as a g u e r i l l a commander during the s r e v o l t s against Javanese Indonesia, he has perfected h i s own g u e r i l l a t a c t i c s suitable to Achehnese t e r r a i n.
The l a s t few months of revolutionary struggles has changed h i s personality and demeanor t o be a new m i l i t a r y commander, respected and obeyed and loved by a l l h i s men. Because he came from among the rank and f i l e of the people, he i s intimately f a m i l i a r with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r process of thinking.
Because of t h i s knowledge, he i s able to explain to them the complex theory of l i b e r a t i o n struggle i n the simplest language that can be understood by the people that brought the Javanese colo- n i a l i s t house of cards down tumbling. He i s now regarded by the peo- ple of Acheh with such respect and owe that he i s already a legend i n h i s own time. Indeed Revolutions bring f o r t h such men. Once I received reports of the b r i l l i a n t performance of my Army Commander as a p o l i t i c a l speaker, I contrived to be able to hear him myself.
I had always thought that I was the best speaker on such subject. After a l l that was my mission to have come back to Acheh and to have s t i r r e d up the whole country. But a f t e r I heard him speaks on the subject. I must admit that he can explain better to the people what the people wanted to know.
And he knows d i r e c t ways to assuage t h e i r fears and their doubts since he knows t h e i r minds as h i s own used to be. With that I also know that the idea of indepen- dence of Acheh that I had brought back to my country has been s a f e l y replanted on the indigenous s o i l that can no longer be uprooted by the murderous Javanese hordes. We l e t them passed through unmolest- ed because we s t i l l s t i c k to our plan: we are s t i l l i n p o l i t i c a l e- ducational phase of the struggle and we are not yet ready for armed struggle.
Preparation i s immediately made for such a move. Thus we remove ourselves from the T i r o River area which has now become the target of enemy s search and destroy" operations. When such a move i s made, we meant to con- found the enemy that he should t o t a l l y l o s t contact with us and that he should not have any i n k l i n g as to where we are.
Therefore when we march out, small groups are formed to move out to d i f f e r e n t di- rections and to meet later at some distance along the way, So i f the enemy happened to discover our abandoned camp, he w i l l not be able to t e i l to what d i r e c t i o n we had moved out. We arrived at Alue Pineung about 5 PM. The high and steep mountain ranges are c r i s s - c r o s s e d by countless small winding springs and r i - ver s.
The mountain i s also the h i s t o r i e g u e r i l l a hideouts when there were wars against invaders i n Acheh. I have a sad memory about t h i s mountain. My s i s t e r was here with my brother and other members of my family. Also my late mother was here. But I do have the reraains of my ancestors scattered on e- very mountain top and every v a l l e y a l l over Acheh as a consequent of wars with invaders.
How we have died, and s t i l l dying, and why. When w i l l colonialism, i n a l l colors and manifestations, be eradicated? And the surrounding i s very pleasant. From the Northern promontory of the camp you can see the town of T i - ro, the town of Beureunuen, and on clear day,the S t r a i t s of Malacca.
The forest i s very thick, and the trees are very t a l l. But because the trees are very t a l l , i t i s very dangerous there when the winds are blowing hard. We have to b u i l d the roofs ofthe camp with extra-strong beams t o withstand possible f a l l i n g branches that happened occasion- al ly. As a matter o f p o l i c y our masses should remain where they are, i n t h e i r homes.
And we w i l l be lucky i f we ma- naged t o move out i n advance. He is already bankrupt politically. Soon we r e c e i v e r e p o r t s that the enemy has issued orders that no one i s allowed t o go t o the mountain any- more. An area a- bout three m i l e s wide and miles long, running from East-West d i - r e c t i o n , beginning from Bireuen i n the East t o Padang T i d j i i n the West, t h a t i s the area between the mountain ranges and the country- side i s being marked out w i t h red-and-white painted planks which suppose t o d e l i n e a t e the area t o the Indonesian a i r force planes f o r the purpose of bombing the e n t i r e length of i t w i t h napalm, t o e r e c t the w a l l of f i r e between the v i l l a g e s and the mountains, that i s be- tween the people and us.
He i s the man who knows eve- ry hook and nook of the mountains of C e n t r a l Acheh. He used to be a t i g e r hunter a f t e r being a legendary m i l i t a r y commander f o r the Acheh nese forces i n the r e s i s t a n c e against Javanese Indonesia i n the s where he got the name of "Commandant" t h a t s t i c k e d with him.
The grandfathers of both men f e i l together w i t h my grandfather i n the b a t t l e f i e l d against the Dutch during the l a s t stand i n the D i s - t r i c t of Geumpang. My mother was born i n Geumpang too, and many of my ancestors were buried there, i n c l u d i n g a brother of my grandfather, a former Head of Achehnese State.
As a boy, I was taken to v i s i t these graves every year. For us "the struggle continues" i s not a slogan but a matter of f a c t! The Javanese went to i n s p e c t kitchens i n every household and they found many womenfolks were baking so much cakes and p a s t r i e s t h a t the Javanese suspected t o be sent to the f o - r e s t s. The people are not permitted t o go out to the f o r e s t day or n i g h t , even f o r the purpose of garnering the f i r e woods f o r t h e i r cooking needs.
Every house must keep the lamp burn,ing a l l night a t the f r o n t door, so t h a t anyone coming i n a t n i g h t can be seen by the Javanese occupation troops. That we have not starved i s s u f f i - c i e n t l y demonstrated r i g h t now because the people support the NLF. In f a c t , food never stopped coming from the country- side under any c o n d i t i o n s. I t was f i r s t published as a speech by me i n New York, i n I t was 68 years before the Japanese defeated the B r i t i s h in Singapore, i n ; 80 years before the Vietnamese defeated the French i n Dien Bien Phu.
The message was d e l i - vered with such ingenuity that i t must s t i l l be kept secret for future use. Second, a secret l e t t e r from another Indonesian o f f i c e r , also a sympathiser, arrived within minutes of the f i r s t message, informing me that the enemy i s f u l l y awared now about the location of the Alue P i - neung Camp from the reports sent to the Indonesian army headquarters i n Kuta Radja by two Indonesian army i n f i l t r a t o r s who had v i s i t e d the camp, disguised as supporters of the NLF.
According to t h i s report,the camp i s located on the Eastern bank of Alue Pineung followed by a diagram of a map which i s so accurate. The Indonesian troops are go- ing to attack within hours and he recommends immediate evacuation of the camp. That i s enough messages for one day to receive.
I immediately c a l l for a meeting of the leaders who are present to decide what action should be taken. We have already had strong suspicion of the two men who said they came from Kuta Radja area to j o i n our movement and bringing a l e t t e r of recommendation from a pro- minent leader i n Kuta Radja area.
But somehow a p e r s i s t e n t suspicion towards them existed because of the wrong things they are saying, the way they were t a l k i n a and acting. They were somehow d i d not fit in among our people. One of them always i n s i s t i n g on wearing a jacket that was a general issue uniform of the Indonesian army bearing an un- usually large i n s i g n i a on the back and on the arms.
He said i t was given to him by h i s brother i n the army and he needed to wear i t because he f e i t too cold i n the mountains a l l the time. They sort of hitchhiked on h i s column, being recoramended to him by someone he casually knew, and brought them up to the camp without further m- vestigation. But when Daud asked me to receive them, I refused to do so, because I was not s a t i s - f i e d with the explanation and I forbade them to be brought to the i n - ner Camp of Alue Pineung.
Therefore they were kept at the guard post three miles down h i l l. That was why they have not been brought to the main Camp, adjacent to my quarters. Obviously their crimes are most dangerous. The majority of the leadership of the NLF are present at the time at Alue Pineung Camp and are facing instant l i q u i d a t i o n by the enemy forces on account of these men's crimes.
The decision was taken to put the spies immedi- ately under a r r e s t and to be t r i e d l a t e r for their crimes before a Court M a r t i a l. A s p e c i a l squad was sent to the guard post to make the arrest when i t was found out that the two men had f l e d early that morning. The search around the post and the surrounding h i l l s f a i l e d to produce them. We decide t o move out on February l s t , I t w i l l take a few days t o pack everything and t o erase the traces of our camp as much as p o s s i b l e , with a view t o p o s s i b l e f u t u r e uses, because a t the r a t e of our coming and going we may exhaust our camp- ing ground very soon.
However, the most preminent among these mountain ex p e r t s , acknowledged and respected by a l l , are:Mahmud Barat 40 who, when not on marching time, has been assigned the jobs o f C h i e f and Chef of k i t c h e n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because ef h i s honesty and of h i s knowledge of c u l i n a r y a r t. He was a farmer, strong as a g i a n t , and possessed a good l e v e l of education. He was a community leader of the v i l l a g e of Blang Kedah, a t the time of my unexpected arrival one midnight i n Blang Kedah, l a s t year - and he has been w i t h me e- ver s i n c e.
When on the meve, nobody dares t o question h i s a u t h o r i t y. When marching i n the f o r e s t s there i s only one man t o obey: the Pawang. Barat i s a man o f very few words. Geutjhik Uma has much knowledge about mountains too, e s p e c i a l l y he was once the C h i e f o f P o l i c e f o r the T i r o Region, before the Acheh- nese r e v o l t against Indonesia i n the s t h a t Geutjhik Uma took p a r t. I am very proud of him.
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